EU Idiots Decide to Start a Meme War…WE SHALL GIVE IT TO THEM!

Roy Batty
Daily Stormer
June 21, 2018

The meme wars haven’t ended.

They’ve just begun.

RT:

Memes banned. Remixes outlawed. Parody videos removed. Critics say this would be the outcome of the EU adopting two controversial copyright rules that were just approved in committee.

Critics are unhappy with Articles 11 and 13 of the EU Copyright Directive, which were cleared by the Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament on Wednesday and now face a floor vote scheduled sometime in July.

Dubbed the “link tax” by critics, Article 11 would require online platforms to pay for links to news and other content they refer to. While proponents said it was intended to make Google and Facebook share the profit they make with news organizations that are struggling in the modern market, critics have pointed out it could penalize linking to content for the purpose of criticism or commentary. It was narrowly approved by the committee, with 13 votes in favor and 12 votes against.

Banning memes would be the logical step if they were trying to prevent some internet-based uprising through samizdat, meme magic and relentless mockery.

So perhaps this really is their plan.

On the other hand, we’re dealing with Euro-Boomers here and in true boomer fashion, they probably just want to ban something they don’t understand. The real story here is that someone trying to take away the one PURE form of entertainment that I have left.

My memes have history. My memes have character. They define me and my generation.

These dastardly Euro-Boomers and kikes just can’t fucking rest until everything is shit. Everything they touch is ruined.

But not this time.

We need the vets to come out of retirement.

These bastards aren’t going to take our memes away.

There is already resistance brewing.

But we should come to grips with a possible new reality. Soon there will be no more memes. Reality will have to become the realization of our memes if they are to live on.

No more memeing RWDS…only being RWDS.

That’s what these bugman bureacrats will force us to do eventually.

Just like Gamergate radicalized an entire generation of young gamers…so too will Memegate radicalize yet more meme-addicted youngsters.

Evil White-Hating Rapper XXXTentacion Shot Dead at 20!

Michael Byron
Daily Stormer
June 20, 2018

A few years ago, negro rapper XXXTentacion released a song – and I’m being generous in using that word – called “Look At Me.” Though lots of rap songs contain anti-white elements, the video to this one was so notorious in that regard (it included a scene in which the rapper hung a white child) that it made international headlines.

The hanging begins at 2:16. Other noteworthy parts include a pack of nogs taking over a white teacher’s class at 0:24 and a dedication to Heather “Krispy Kreme” Heyer at 1:39.

Normally, Satan waits until his musical slaves reach the age of 27 before killing them off, but he clearly considered XXXTentacion such a shitty rapper that he thought: “Fuck it, I’m sending the Grim Reaper now.”

BAM! Dead at 20!

BBC News:

US rapper XXXTentacion, who quickly rose to fame with two consecutive hit albums, has been killed aged 20.

He was leaving a motorcycle dealership in south Florida on Monday when a gunman shot him.

Police in Broward County said XXXTentacion, whose real name is Jahseh Onfroy, was taken to hospital where he was pronounced dead.

The rapper, who first found an audience by uploading songs to the website SoundCloud, had been hailed as a breakthrough talent and tributes have been pouring in from hip-hop luminaries in the wake of his death.

I’m interested in knowing which (((tribe of hooked-nosed parasites))) was responsible for XXXTentacion’s rapid ascent to stardom.

Perhaps our friend A. Wyatt Mann can shed some light on this mysterious matter…

Onfroy was leaving the dealership shortly before 16:00 local time when two men approached him, officials say.

At least one of them shot him before both fled the scene in Deerfield Beach, 43 miles (69km) north of Miami, in a dark-coloured SUV.

Investigators said it appeared to have been a “possible robbery“. Video posted on social media apparently showed Onfroy slumped in his car.

A witness told celebrity news website TMZ that multiple shots had been fired outside the dealership.

Assuming it’s true, “robbery” is probably only half the story. There’s always something monkier going on with these blacks: gang warfare, unpaid debts, accusations of disrespect, etc.

Personally, I think this is the glorious Trump Curse in action. XXXTentacion wasn’t a big fan of our Donald, you see, and he sure made the world know it:

And we all know what happens when the enemies of America make themselves known: they get SMOTE by the universe, one by one!

Try lynching a white child now, you prehistoric silverback!

Damn, this was an unexpected white pill.

I don’t think it could possibly get bet-

IT GETS BETTER

Another worthless nog rapper has been shot to death! These darkies are dropping like flies!

Fox News:

Rising rap star Jimmy Wopo has died in a double drive-by shooting in Pittsburgh, his manager has confirmed.

Wopo, 21, was identified as one of the victims on Monday evening (18 June) within hours of another tragic incident which saw 20-year-old rapper XXXTentacion killed in South Florida.

CBS Pittsburgh reports that two people were rushed to hospital later confirming one had succumbed to their wounds.

Wopo’s manager Taylor Maglin confirmed news of his client’s death on Facebook.

Wew, the universe is truly cleaning house.

Jimmy Wopo is arguably an even worse rapper than XXXTentacion. Just listen to this nonsense:

Like “Look At Me,” this video contains an anti-white cop message. It’s ironic that these rappers promote the idea that white cops are after them because of the color of their skin, yet when they die, it’s always at the hands of fellow negroes.

Ah, it’s been a good week.

How To Overthrow The New Master Race: Western Women

By B. Chadwick Galt

The Western man has achieved great wealth, intellectual attainment, technological advancement, medical breakthrough, and the highest status in the world at breakneck speed in the modern era.  But as all good things must come to an end, the Western man is drifting quickly towards the edges of the whirlpool due largely to his own actions.

Historians will debate the reasons for this inevitable fall.  I put it to you that chief among them was the willful abdication of the Western man’s preeminent status in favor of the Western woman.

Here is a YouTube bid by Turd Flinging Monkey that is about this very topic. Funny as shit!!

HOW MEN CAN FIGHT BACK LEGALLY. PAY ATTENTION. Watch or listen to the video and learn.

Little did these men understand that female nature, at its core, employs the strategy of obtaining “MORE” to the point where men have now become dispossessed of the pinnacle of social power.  The Western woman sits atop this pinnacle and is now the most privileged, exalted, coddled, empowered, shielded, and defended demographic group in the world while the Western man is her minion.  Some evidence of the problem is as follows.

Western Men Are Increasingly Trying to “Pass” as Female

Image result for prancing elites

The explosive popularity of Western men living their lives as “trans women” is indicative of their desire to live under the privileges, protections, and prestige of those in this master race.  There is no wonder why Western women are the biggest advocates of “trans women” because imitation remains the sincerest form of flattery.

We need only look toward the pre-civil rights era when racially mixed blacks would often engage in “passing” as whites to avoid the unenviable position as second class citizens.  The trans community is exercising the same strategy, albeit far less convincingly.

Homosexual and Effeminate Men Are Rewarded as Honorary Females

Image result for gay men with women

Lets’s face it.  The most fashionable and celebrated men in the Western world are gay or seemingly gay men because their very existence validates Western women’s status as the master race which is to be emulated and respected at all costs.

Western women defend gay and seemingly gay men to the death because an attack on anything gay is an attack on Western women by proxy.  This is way Western women attend “Pride” events with glee and promote the LGBT lifestyle as hip and progressive.  Each new gay man represents a new loyal follower of women as the master race.

Western Female Supremacy In Public Policy

Western women exert the power of their governments to enhance their exalted status and to symbolically subjugate men in a variety of ways.  One of the most egregious examples is the difference in treatment between male and female genital mutilation.

The United States government actively funds and supports male circumcision programs under the guise of reducing the spread of HIV in developing countries.   The efficacy and clinical underpinnings of this practice are suspect at best but this program is vociferously defended by feminists to thumb their noses at men all while anti-female genital mutilation programs are similarly funded and supported.  This baffling discrepancy is how women in governments actively flaunt their power to reinforce their supremacy over men.

Intentional Restriction of Male Prerogatives

Image result for sexist treatment of men

One of the most powerful ways the Western women has defeated men is by backing men into a behavioral corner by restricting male options.  For example, if a man in the workplace restricts his interactions with women to purely professional matters, he stands to be liable to charges of disparate treatment discrimination at worst.  But if this same man willingly interacts socially with women at work, he stands to be accused of sexual harassment when any woman finds it advantageous to do so.

In the area of public transport, if a man refrains from giving up his seat to a woman, a woman can have him arrested for manspreading in some jurisdictions lest he forget himself in her presence.  But if the same man gives up his seat to a woman, he can be cited for being creepy if the woman so deems him.

If a man shows common courtesy and holds a door for a woman, he can be chastised as condescending for treating the woman as somehow less capable of getting the door for herself.  But if this same man refuses to hold that door open for that woman, he can be deemed a rude miscreant for not showing deferential treatment to his better.

Western men therefore now live in a world of being potentially damned if you choose to do and likewise damned if you don’t.  This is the hallmark of female supremacy in a system where women are empowered with arbitrary power to control men in every sphere of life.

How To Re-Impose Male Supremacy

Image result for men hit back

So how can men regain supremacy when the decks are so stacked against them.  The below are tips men can incorporate into their day to day lives to topple women from their tenuous place of power.

Never help a woman for anything unless she is a family member or a sexual partner

Treat all other women as if they are on their own when they are in a pickle.  Pass by the woman with a flat tire.  Never intervene on behalf of a woman in your personal life.  Treat them as if they are on their own.

Never employ women beyond clerical, customer service or support roles

Although this practice can be legally challenged, clever employers know that spending a little on legal defense early can prevent years of huge costs later.

End all platonic friendships with Western women

Women, unless they are sleeping with you, are to be treated as the enemy which wants to exploit you for whatever money, attention, and services you can provide.  See women purely as providers of sex and children only.  If you want to have platonic friendships with women, do so outside of Western society where women still respect men as leaders.

Vote in each and every federal, state, and local election but never again vote for a female under any circumstances

It has been said that “Elections are less about voting for someone and more about voting against someone else.”

File official grievances, complaints, and lawsuits against women whenever you can as a pure act of war

Women rule the roost in Western institutions, so these actions go a long way towards changing discriminatory attitudes towards men in favor of women.

Travel to and develop comfort in non-Western countries

And increasingly invest and spend your wealth there as an act of defiance.  Starving the West of male consumption revenue will hasten the economic demise of female supremacy and leave it vulnerable to overthrow from within or from without.

When the Islamist or migrant uprising goes into full tilt in the West, refuse to fight it and just let it be.

Hostile outside forces are the means to re-masculinizing the West.  Use these enemies of your enemy to do your dirty work for you because when it is all said and done, Western men will rise to the top in any male-dominated society.

Female supremacy will inevitably fall, but “red pilled” men must collectively do all we can to ensure it happens sooner rather than later.

 

4 Ways To Stop A Woman From Manipulating You

There are many reasons women manipulate men. The more prevalent reasons these days are money, gifts, financial favors, etc. For example, if your woman wants a to go on a weekend getaway so she’ll let you fuck her brains out the entire week.

Another example would be if she wants a kitchen upgrade so she tells you that you can have a “man cave” and one night of anal sex with her so you’ll agree to a 5-figure mortgage refinance loan so she can get her overpriced kitchen.

Many kitchens have been negotiated with “man caves” and anal

The best example would be being on her best behavior because she wants you to propose. She sucks your dick every night, let’s you do it in the butt, cooks you meals every night, she’s kind, agreeable, feminine, etc. (Note: A woman is never more well behaved when she hears the sounds of wedding bells in the not-too-distant future)

The bottom line here is that women rarely do anything for a man just to be nice. There’s always an ulterior motive and that’s where the manipulation comes in.

Manipulation vs. Good behavior

While it’s important to know how to nip female manipulation in the bud, it’s equally important to know the difference between a woman attempting to manipulate you and a woman exhibiting good behavior.

The difference between the two is that manipulation is good behavior occurs close to the time when a woman wants something. Good behavior happens all the time.

If a woman knows she’s good to you and doing what she needs to do to hold it down with regular sex, cooking, looking good for you, representing you well in public, giving you access to her phone, staying off social media and so forth, she doesn’t feel the need to manipulate you into doing something for her. She knows she’s entitled to good treatment from you because she’s a good woman to you.

Girls who do this on the regular don’t need to manipulate their men

Women who manipulate men for gifts, trips, iPhones, etc. know they are not doing what’s necessary to be a good woman. Women who use manipulation tactics know they haven’t built up enough equity with you to simply ask you for what they want. So they dress like a slut, cook your favorite meal, or whatever it is they think they can do you manipulate you. Once they get what they want, the good behavior stops and that’s how you know it’s manipulation.

Women who are good all the time know they have the right to ask you for things and they know that in order to keep that privilege they have to continue to do what’s necessary to feel entitled to  good treatment from you.

So now that we’ve laid down the basics, let’s get to the first step on how to stop being manipulated by your woman.

Be proactive and set the tone. Setting the tone and letting your know you are not the kind of man who cannot be manipulated is absolutely paramount. Not only does this reduce the odds of her trying to pull any bullshit with you, when she actually does (and she will) she’ll be far less confident because you let her know early on that you’re not here for the games.

So how do you set the tone and let your woman know you’re not who gets tripped up by mind games? Let’s take a look at four examples and how to properly respond:

Call bullshit on her sob stories

Example:

Her: “My ex boyfriend was horrible! He was an abusive alcoholic who gambled away our money while he fucked hookers and snorted cocaine while he simultaneously beat and raped me every night!”

You: :::roll your eyes and chuckle::: “Oh stop…if he was so bad why’d you stay with him for 3 years? We both know you weren’t the perfect girlfriend either. And don’t talk about your ex around me. Save that shit for your friends.”

Cry me a river….

This accomplishes two things. First, it shows her you’re not gonna buy the bullshit stories about her ex like all her other boyfriends did which means she won’t try to bad mouth him again and second, it stops her from talking about her ex around you.

Don’t take everything at face value

When she makes a statement you find questionable, quiz her on it. Ask her questions. Ask for details. That tells her in no uncertain terms that you won’t believe just anything she says. She knows that if she tells you something it has to be true, and she has to be able to back it up lest you question her on the details.

If you don’t ask questions about shit you have questions about, this WILL come back to bite you because if you start and you didn’t do it in the beginning, she won’t answer your questions when you try to. Be skeptical of everything she tells you that doesn’t make sense or sounds strange or suspicious.

Tell her about your ex’s unsuccessful manipulation attempts

It’s inevitable that your girl is going to ask you “So why did you and your girlfriend break up?” Rather than going into some long diatribe about what really happened say this:

“We broke up because she wanted to manipulate me and she couldn’t.”

If she asks “How did she try?”

Dismissively say: “You know how women are.”

This tells her that you know a woman’s nature and that you know that she knows what women do to manipulate men. 

This makes her far less likely to try any bullshit with you later on because she knows you’re wise to how women really are and what they do.

Point out examples when you’re out in public together

Example 1: If you see a woman being overly affectionate to her man in public, say “She must want something.”

Example 2: If you see a man buying something expensive for a woman, say “She must have let him go back door last night.”

Example 3: If you see a marriage proposal in public say “Welp! I guess he’s not having sex anymore!”

Example 4: If you see a woman crying in public, roll your eyes and say “Oh please…”

Example 5: If you see a woman throwing a fit or bitching about something say “That chick needs a stiff drink, a stiff dick, and a nap”

At some point your woman will inevitably challenge your pithy Red Pill arrows with what she’ll rationalize as “the voice of common sense.”

Challenge to example 1: “Well how do YOU know she wants something?! She might just be in love him!”

You say: “You don’t believe that.”

Challenge to example 2: “That’s not what it looks like to me!”

You say: “Of  course YOU don’t” (then laugh)

When she’s heard enough of these she’ll finally say, “God you’re so jaded!”

You respond with: “You call it jaded, I call it experience.”

Taking these steps at the beginning of a relationship will drastically reduce the odds of her attempting to manipulate you, but keep in mind that nothing will completely eliminate it because this is just how females operate. She’s going to try at some point. Count on it.

However, taking the measures above lets her know that you’re not the typical guy who gives into her emotional shenanigans or believes everything she says. And when you make that clear to her both directly and indirectly, she will have more respect for you than she’s had for any man in quite a while.

Part Two will cover some of the ways women try to manipulate men and how to handle it directly so as to squash it like a bug…

…but if you don’t want to wait for the article, click here to watch or listenAnd watch Donovan Sharpe drop Red Pill truth on TSR: Live weekday afternoons at 1pmE/10amP 

From http://www.returnofkings.com/178235/4-ways-to-stop-a-woman-from-manipulating-you

Italy Joins Trump in Calling For Russia to be Reinstated at Big Boys’ Table

Roy Batty
Daily Stormer
June 10, 2018

I get the feeling that the top-tier politicians gossip about each other and have a Mean Girls like attitude to get-togethers like G7.

Politico:

Italy’s new prime minister, Giuseppe Conte, broke sharply with the EU on Friday at his first international summit, and joined U.S. President Donald Trump’s call for Russia to be reinstated to the exclusive club of industrialized nations.

Trump called for Russia’s reinstatement as he left the White House to travel to the G7 leaders’ meeting in Quebec.

The Western powers and Japan ejected Russia from the G8 in 2014 in response to the Kremlin’s invasion, and subsequent annexation, of Crimea.

Conte posted his support for Trump’s view on Twitter, apparently between meetings with European Council President Donald Tusk and European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker. It’s unclear if Tusk or Juncker were aware of Conte’s statement before their meetings.

Boy, do I feel for Putin. The odd man out.

Slavs are always the odd ones out…always.

It’s because they’re White…but a bit off. They don’t do the hyper-individualistic bugman thing that well. They’re touchy-feely, but they look like they shouldn’t be allowed to do such a thing. And they’ll start off ice-cold at first before warming up to you. So they basically act Scandinavian at first and then transition to a more Italian style of behavior. This throws people off.

Let me explain.

See, when an Italian gets all worked-up or starts talking macho, most people just kind of accept it the way that they would accept a French guy being into weird stuff sexually and spending his days lazing around. Also, the same way that they accept a British person being a stuck-up pansy. Or a German being a weird blond android. These stereotypes give the people who fit within their confines some slack.

“He’s just an X” – people will say and cut them some slack.

But Slavs are kind of useless in the modern world. You can’t show them off at a party like you would a token minority, because while they’re exotic, they’re too White, so no virtue-signaling points. Furthermore, they could embarrass you. Because they have this habit of getting too informal with people they like.

Like if they like someone at the party, they might drop the casual politeness and start suggesting that they get drunk together and have a RealTalk tete-a-tete for a bit in the staircase, toasting to their health, inviting them to come visit them in their dacha…total faux pas behavior basically.

I cringe thinking about Putin trying hard to fit in with these Westerners – Abe is the token non-White in the scenario – and them all being snooty to him.

Macron’s got the whole, “I’m a suave metrosexual” thing going on – very cool indeed.

Merkel looks like an aggressive bulldyke more and more these days. But that’s cool. Germans are just strange like that. They’ve got this intensity about them in everything they do. Merkel probably read a book on power poses, and just decided to start holding her hands like that. Her advisors probably assured her that this is what normal humans do. Everyone else probably just chuckles at it and lets it slide.

Trudeau kind of goes over the line with his fuckboy routine. But even though he’s probably the butt of most of the jokes, he’s just too damn fashionable to bully too hard.

Look at him grinning in the back there. Is he standing on tip-toe?

Trump’s kind of like the brash Jay Gatsby new money arrival in town and all the established old money types are sort of impressed but also not so secretly hate the guy. He’s probably feeling like the odd man out at this gathering of weirdos and wants Putin to come back so that he can someone to chat with between meetings. Look at the body distance between him and May and Merkel. The entire left side of the photo looks like the cast of Friends.

Comfortable with each other, touchy-feely.

And I’m not going to analyze Theresa May and the others. Junker seems like a fun guy to drink with though. And while drunk, he spilled the beans on the whole contact with aliens thing. Fun guy. Creepy tho.

He likes to get tipsy and slap people around. It’s his only redeeming quality.

Putin’s just too scary for this crowd. In general, Westerners genuinely feel more comfortable around non-Whites than around Slavs. They come off as a bit too intense, and they don’t smile enough. People are kind of scared of them.

But Italians and Slavs get along pretty well.

Clearly, Conte the Italian understands this ancient alliance.

Conte and Trump just want to do their own afterparty, where everyone isn’t all weird, snooty and Mean Girlish, and understand Putin is a key element of such a party plan.

Just look at Conte and Trump walking next to each other, trying to ditch drunk Junker who’s following them around acting weird, try to listen in on their conversation and making them feel uncomfortable. Trump is just like “man, I’d sure prefer we were hanging out with Putin to this asshole” and Conte is just like “lol ikr.” 

US Threatens Assad with Destruction if He Tries to Take Back Territory

Roy Batty
Daily Stormer
June 1, 2018

What do normies make of all this?

And let’s assume that normies are capable of rational thought for a sec.

For years, the US denied being in Syria.

For years, they denied arming the rebels.

Everyone was just talking about how this was a spontaneous uprising of all the various disgruntled factions within Syria. ISIS? Well, sure they were an unfortunate development, but that was just more proof that we needed to support the other rebel groups.

And now it’s crystal-clear that there are American troops in Syria, and that they are arming various militia groups.

Did anyone even blink?

RT:

US troops are not leaving Syria and any attempt to remove them by force will be met with an armed response, a top Pentagon official said, reacting to Syrian President Bashar Assad’s RT interview.

“Any interested party in Syria should understand that attacking US forces or our coalition partners will be a bad policy,” Director of Joint Staff Lieutenant General Kenneth McKenzie said at the Pentagon press briefing on Thursday.

Over 2,000 US troops in Syria are embedded with the SDF in the northeast as well as in the enclave of At-Tanf in the south, along the Jordanian border. McKenzie said the US troops and their local militia allies were staying in Tanf, quashing rumors of their impending withdrawal.

“We are there. Nothing has changed,” he said. “The maintenance of that deconfliction zone is important and we would view very gravely any actions that tended to change that.” 

I guess I should explain why I’m so baffled by this cavalier new attitude.

Back when this whole Syria thing was just getting started, I was taking classes by this former Marine who was an attache to the American ambassador in Syria in the run-up to the rebellion.

This guy was smart – in a technical way – but also completely ideologically committed to the cause of ZOG. I remember failing a paper because I wrote about Turkey’s inevitable incursion into Syria, American funding of rebel groups and how the Free Syria Army didn’t actually exist on the ground. As part of my research, I remember speaking to a former jailed dissident of Assad who was then working for some regime-change NGO in the US. Even he readily admitted to me that the Qataris and Saudis were arming various terrorist groups in Syria like Al-Nusra and ISIS, while the Americans were helping funnel foreign fighters in and that weapons were flowing through Turkey, as was stolen oil – all of it going to Israel on the cheap.

So much shit went down in the early years of the war.

But people forget how it was considered “conspiracy theory” to point out that the rebellion in Syria was being funded by outside powers and that the same groups that the Americans had armed in Libya were all being smuggled into Syria to do the exact same thing that they had done to Ghadaffi.

You literally could not say these things in any “respectable” academic environment, and the press didn’t dare mention it either at the time.

It was frustrating, to say the least.

Meanwhile, the Russians were reporting the truth more or less at the time. And you had Abkhazian-based ANNA News, which had really good content from the frontlines with the SAA.

Also, you had Syria General up on the chans talking about what was really happening on the ground as well.

And of course, you had the entire dissident blogosphere talking about how fucked up the situation in Syria was. The entire spectrum of opinion that wasn’t the NYT or other ZOG-owned at the time was constantly telling a completely different narrative about Syria for years.

I made the mistake of repeating some of these…alternative viewpoints in an academic environment.

The jarhead gave me the lowest passing grade that he could and only after I redid my entire paper. His former IDF-girl TA deliberately made a big show of talking about one student who had failed the paper and needed to confront his internal biases and blah blah blah in front of the whole class of bugmen, Jews and Gulf Arabs.

Basically, anyone that didn’t believe the whole “People’s Rebellion” narrative was punished.

But now the US simply can’t hide the truth anymore.

American troops are in Syria. They are arming rebel groups and preventing Assad from defeating them. They have de facto annexed parts of Syria along with the Kurds, Turkey and Israel. This is illegal and in complete violation of international law.

And every single “conspiracy theory” peddled by the dastardly Russians and alternative media turned out to be true. 

Man, I wish I could talk to Professor Jarhead now and flap my paper in front of his nose, close enough to make his eyes water.

I’ve thought long and hard about what I’d say to him, while maintaining a firm handshake, steady eye-contact, and a reassuring, but iron-tight cupped hand on his ballsack.

“I was right, you nigger.”

^That’s pretty much what I’ve settled on.

I suppose I should thank the Jarhead and his kikess TA. Those two gave me a red-pill crash course that I will never forget going forward.

Hopefully, Assad, the Iranians, and the Russians teach ZOG a lesson is Syria as well.