In Classical China, Western Civilization Flourished

http://www.amerika.org/politics/in-classical-china-western-civilization-flourished/

During the era in which Chinese civilization bloomed, four thousand years ago, Caucasian people were active in the region and left their mark through a artifacts only recently uncovered which have been controversial from the outset.

These people were clearly from an ancient European type which no longer exists in that form today, but gives some historical context to the wandering life of Europeans before they settled in Europe, including the settling of lands in Asia:

In the middle of a terrifying desert north of Tibet, Chinese archaeologists have excavated an extraordinary cemetery. Its inhabitants died almost 4,000 years ago, yet their bodies have been well preserved by the dry air.

The cemetery lies in what is now China’s northwest autonomous region of Xinjiang, yet the people have European features, with brown hair and long noses. Their remains, though lying in one of the world’s largest deserts, are buried in upside-down boats. And where tombstones might stand, declaring pious hope for some god’s mercy in the afterlife, their cemetery sports instead a vigorous forest of phallic symbols, signaling an intense interest in the pleasures or utility of procreation.

…All the men who were analyzed had a Y chromosome that is now mostly found in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Siberia, but rarely in China. The mitochondrial DNA, which passes down the female line, consisted of a lineage from Siberia and two that are common in Europe.

As the debate on cultural appropriation ramps up, the presence of Europeans during the birth of Chinese civilization gives rise to the question of how much influence these quasi-nomadic people had on the development of that culture.

 

Da Yu, ( Chinese: “Yu the Great”) Wade-Giles romanization Ta Yü, in Chinese mythology, the Tamer of the Flood, a saviour-hero and reputed founder of China’s oldest dynasty, the Xia. One legend among many recounts Da Yu’s extraordinary birth: a man called Gun was given charge of controlling a great deluge. To dam the water, he stole from heaven what seems to have been a piece of magic soil. Angered by the theft, the Lord on High (Shangdi) issued an order for his execution. After three years Gun’s miraculously preserved body was slit open and a son brought forth. This was Da Yu who, after years of strenuous labour, provided outlets to the sea through dredging, with the aid of dragons, thus making the world suitable for human habitation.

Some of the earliest legends about Yu describe him as a dragon or as a half-dragon, half-human creature. Later myths portray him as wholly human but say that he could take the form of various creatures.

 

Chinese History: The White Tribes of Ancient China

An Artists impression of what this mummie possibly looked like when alive.
An Artists impression of what this mummie possibly looked like when alive.

4,000 Year Old Lost Tribe

One of the most fantastic finds in the last half of the twentieth century has to be the discovery of a Northern European tribe found in the northeast corner of Xinjiang province, near the Celestial Mountains and the Taklimakan Desert on the edge of the Gobi desert.

The story starts in 1978 when the Chinese archaeologist, Wang Binghus, started searching for ancient sites. He began by following stream beds, and asking the locals if they had ever come across any broken pots and artifacts. He eventually came across a few people who pointed out that there was a place called Qizilchoqa, or, as the local people called it, Red hill. Here he made the most amazing discovery, the first of the mummies. It had been placed in a grave on the side of the hill.

He looks like he is sleeping, but he is over 4,000 years old!
He looks like he is sleeping, but he is over 4,000 years old!

It was a simple site, rush mats were on the floor, and some of the bodies were buried in the foetal position. In effect, the mummies were not what you would call real mummies, in the sense that they were not embalmed. They had been preserved in an amazing way. They had been placed in the ground, which had been subjected to a unique weather system. Heat, aridity, and bitter winter cold, mixed with a salty soil, had preserved them better than other mummies found around the world. Even the clothing was still perfectly recognizable.

Tarim 42
Tarim 42

The bodies were excavated and taken to the museum in the city of Urumqi. There were 113 bodies taken from the site. At the time the Chinese government did not have enough funds to excavate the find. Wang eventually discovered three more burial sites.

The faces of the mummies were very well preserved, so, on closer examination, they could see that they were not Chinese. They had blonde hair, big eyes, and European noses.

At that time, Chinese tradition had always shown the fact that they believed China had developed independently from the rest of the world. Because of this, the government was reluctant to bring the finds to the public attention.

But soon they realized that the proof was irrefutable.

Tarim - map where the mummies were found
Tarim – map where the mummies were found
The tarim mummies
The tarim mummies

The most extraordinary thing about the mummies was the fact that their clothes were in such good condition. A jacket belonging to one man, over three thousand years old, still had a crimson edge. And the women had artificial extensions in their hair.

This tribe was obviously very advanced for its day. On one of the mummies, there is a scar which shows they had rudimentary operating skills. It had been sown up with horses hair.

Mummie of Tarim The beauty of loulan..
Mummie of Tarim The beauty of loulan..

When the West was eventually allowed to visit the mummies, Dr. Victor Mair, who was a Professor of Chinese at Pennsylvania University, took a tour around the museum. Imagine his surprise when he saw these amazing mummies, which had been kept in a dark room, in glass-topped boxes.

At this time, the Chinese authorities were still a bit reluctant to let anybody know about them, so it has taken quite a long time for the West to be able to study them properly.

Eventually in 1993, they were allowed back with a team of geneticists from Italy. And this is when they began to study them properly. They used the most up to date technology of the time to confirm the date of the mummies. They now believe that they are about 4,000 years old, and the youngest about 2,000. There are probably many more to be found, possibly in the same region of China, but it is also possible they could have settled anywhere in China, as long as the conditions were suitable to live in.

Is this the original Witches hat that has come down through history? Maybe genetic memory is involved!
Is this the original Witches hat that has come down through history? Maybe genetic memory is involved!
Atlantean Gardens - wording.
Atlantean Gardens – wording.

These people were from the Bronze age, they were Caucasian, and it is possible that they interacted with the indigenous people at that time. The local people probably taught them their traditions, and the Caucasians most likely introduced them to their way of life as well.

There were two cartwheels found at the burial sites, very similar to what you might find in Russia, or nearby countries. These amazing people were probably Scandinavian or German; it is amazing to think that they trekked across China all the way from Europe, 4,000 years ago, taking their traditions and language with them. How many other tribes were there? Who knows?

The Beauty of Loulan Mummie artists impression
The Beauty of Loulan Mummie artists impression

I think that one of the most fascinating things about this story is that the local people, even today, that live in the area where the bodies were found speak a language called Tocharian, the most eastern branch of Indo-European.

This language is closely related to German and Celtic. I think the other most amazing thing about these people is that they walked all the way across China, taking with them their families, and a mixture of animals, probably goats and sheep.

Feeling the cold, and the heat, catching diseases that they didn’t know anything about, unsure whether they would survive the different climate. Babies were born, people died, and all the time not knowing whether they would be safe or if the indigenous people would accept them.

Their lust for adventure and discovering new places gave them strength and determination to survive. They were amazing people, and I hope that soon we will be able to see these wonderful discoveries and learn more about these courageous human beings that came from the beginning of history.

Tarim mummies
Tarim mummies
European Influence on Ancient China
Few people are aware of the very strong influence of European immigrants in founding Chinese civilization. Skulls of Nordic type have been found in tombs of the first dynasty, the Shang. Words for chariot, prince, king, and horse show obvious European parallels. More detailed proof of this can be found in the archives of the forums listed at the bottom of this post.
The Tocharians were a Nordic Indo-European people who migrated from central Europe and reached Xinjiang around 3000 BC. Some of their well-preserved mummies with blond and red hair have been discovered.
Here is a quotation from INDOEUROPEAN AND THE INDOEUROPEANS, by Gamkrelidze and Ivanov, Vol. II, pages 828-829:
Tocharian migrations to the east and Indo-European loans in Chinese”
“Tocharian diverged from Proto-Indo-European fairly early, with its speakers remaining together with other dialect groupings in the original Indo-European territory.
This is the time when the isoglosses linking Tocharian with dialect areas including Anatolian, Italic, and Celtic could have arisen…However, the separation of Italic and Celtic from the protolanguage had not yet taken place when Tocharian separated from Anatolian and the Tocharians moved eastward toward central Asia. The Tocharian dialects were clearly the first eastward migratory wave, preceding even the Indo-Iranian migrations.
“In historical times, Tocharian dialects can be detected in Chinese Turkestan in the first millennium B.C. (Pulleyblank 1966). They are the source of Indo-European words in Chinese (and some other East Asian languages) such as …OChin *miet ‘honey’ (cf. Toch B mit < *miät ‘honey’), Chin quan, OChin. kiwen ‘dog’ (cf. Toch. B ku, acc. kwem ‘dog’), Chin. niu, OChin ,ngieu ‘bull’, cf. also Chin. gu bull’, OChin. ‘kuo besides Toch. A ko, acc. ki, B eu ‘cow’, Chin. zhu ‘pig’, cf. Toch. B suwo ‘pig’, swanana ‘pertaining to pig’ (cf. Karlgren 1923, 1940). It may have been the same source that gave Chinese mythology its image of sacred horses pulling the chariot of the sun (Pulleyblank 1966:31-32) and the view of the Big Dipper as a carriage.
“Not only linguistic and mythological data testify to contacts of ancient China with Indo-European-speaking tribes; so do archeological remains of chariots harnessed with horses recently found in the territory of Yin [or Shang] Dynasty China. In particular, a two-wheeled carriage of western Asian type was found in Hsiao-t’un together with the skeletons of two horses that had been harnessed to it. Also from the Yin dynasty are sacrificial pits with skeletons of horses and other sacrificial animals (see Kucera 1977:132-42, 182-85).
“Significantly, the entry of this type of chariot into Yin China took place, according to archeologists, due to contacts with powerful Central Asian populations who had chariots of the early Near Eastern type. These tribes must have had a fairly high level of socioeconomic and political development, which enabled them to bring a new type of military organization from the Near East across all Central Asia (see Kozin 1977:284-85) [more recent evidence indicates that the chariot was invented in Russia, not the Middle East. The first chariots were by the Ural mountains.]
“The early linguistic connections between Indo-European and Chinese leave no doubt that the people behind this Central Asian culture were specifically Indo-European tribes, who penetrated to eastern Central Asia from Southwest Asia in their chariots. [actually, they came from Russia, not southwest Asia] A fuller picture of the movement of these tribes awaits detailed archeological investigation of the vast and little-studied expanses of Central Asia, which formed an intermediate zone in the eastward migrations of the ancient Indo-Europeans.”
Footnote:
“Physical-anthropological evidence has recently come to light indicating a significant European contribution to the population that entered the Chinese province of Hansu [should be Gansu, formerly called Kansu] in Central Asia (Goxman and Resetov 1981). Migration routes for the European population have been established in the Altai Mountains and the upper Ob region (where these people could have had linguistic contacts with Uralic speakers). Archeologists trace the source of this migration to the ‘post-Mediterranean’ population of Tajikistan (Dremov 1980). Recent finds of European skulls in Bronze-Age Mongolia (Mamonova 1980) and the Tuva are (Goxman 1980, Goxman and Resetov 1981) show that the European and Asian populations were in physical proximity at that period. Physical anthropologists mention the need for reconsideration of earlier views on the physical type of the population of Central Asia and southern Siberia.”
Actually, a professor named McGovern wrote a book in 1939 called EARLY EMPIRES OF CENTRAL ASIA which uses Chinese and other sources to extensively document the major presence of blonds and redheads in central Asia and China in ancient times. Caucasoid skulls continue to be found today in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia dating to the period before the first Chinese dynasty. Caucasoid skulls dating from ancient and prehistoric times have been found in Kazakhstan and near the Tien Shan mountains too.
Nearly all ancient Chinese techonology was borrowed from Europe.

The Vital Importance of Nationalism

The Vital Importance of Nationalism

By Ron McVan

Much of history is recorded in the epitaphs of nations that have perished because of their internal weakness and schisms. For when a people become more preoccupied with narrow self-interest and family quarrels than with their national good, they fall easy prey to the enemy outside their gates or crumble under the stress and strains within.” ~ The American Heritage editors

Nationalism draws its strength from numerous roots, such as the love of one’s people, customs, traditions, culture, ethnic tribal-gods and homeland. Nationalism also stimulates an instinctive drive to better oneself and their nation as a whole. Folkish nationalism fills a people’s heart with pride and instills the urge to attain a unique sense of being through self-betterment, traditions and a heightened conscious awareness. One of the key elements of nationalism is that it works to unify its people under a healthy mutual ethnic aim. A strong nation leaves little place for any potential enemies to insert their claw. Unlike Marxist socialist societies, Folkish nationalism does not work against its people’s freedoms, subvert their thinking process or strive towards making them dependent upon the state. True Folkish nationalism does not put political interests or corporate interests before the interests of the people.

Men make history, but the destinies of peoples are forged by the creative force of dominating ideas. Through the genius of inspired men they perceive the light of the world and reveal that which slumbers deep in the soul of the peoples. Great ideas are like milestones on the path of humanity, they are the platforms of human progress. The torch of the spirit, born by bold men, has always illuminated the path of humanity. Such inspiring ideas, which once more bring back the laws of life itself into the conscience of the nations, have at all times decisively influenced the development of the European cultural nations, they have elevated them when they were young and promising, and thrown them to the ground when they were weak and aged and had outlived their time.” ~ Dr. Otto Dietrich

From out of the great Euro-Tribe nations were produced the eight wonders of the world along with countless exquisite works of cultural arts, science and engineering. A never-ending stream of genius and creativity. Nations, too—as Mother Nature has ordained—can only take their place in the world in proportion to their capacities and their achievements for the world. In the competitive struggle between the nations, only the best nations can occupy pre-eminent positions on the strength of their achievements and capacities.

Among a strong nationalistic system, there should be no need for secret societies, media propaganda or a government to spy, or work against its own people. The people and the government should work together in harmony with one-another. Some like to think of nationalism as a political movement, or a folkish movement, a race or cultural movement, but it must not be narrowed down to any one single direction, it should always remain a process of numerous progressive elements all combined towards the better good of the Nation at large. Tantamount to the structural strength and vitality of a nation, is its mythology. Myth is a moving and shaping-directive power and the very glue that binds a people together in unity as a folk. It resides in the person exclusively because he or she is a part of their specific race and culture. An ethnic nation is unthinkable as a purposeful group without its myth, it simply cannot survive for too long a time without it. Myth is a foremost element to the process of a folkish awakening. As Carl Jung so very aptly stated, “For a race to live without its myth is suicide!”

A nation without a vital myth drifts aimlessly throughout history. Myth gives purpose and meaning to nationalism. Myth shapes the race so that the race may fulfill the potential of its individuals. The myth reminds us that we are unique as a race and contributes towards elevating our spiritual and ethnic consciousness, and that we are not simply an arbitrary, purposeless, ill-defined conglomerate of men and women.

No one factor accounts for a myth. It is a part of one’s whole heritage. It is born in each individual. Even if a person becomes a part of another culture he is called, deep down inside, by his own myth. It is a sum total of the culture, mores, folkways, customs, art, traditions, legends, history, experience and will of his own particular race, and it is even more than these things. It is the embodied vital will of great men. It is the contributions, defeats, failures, hopes, aspiration and accomplishments of the ethnically-related members of the group.

Here, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The myth is the scaffolding, the superstructure on which all these other things are constructed. It is the skeleton around which the organic body is built. It is the framework which is covered over by a whole beautiful building. It is the form upon which, bit by bit, piece by piece, yard by yard, a people develop. But without the ordering of a myth, the people are merely a helter-skelter collection of all these various facts and facets.” ~ Alfred Rosenberg

All nations, even great and mighty nations, ultimately perish once they become degenerate, and it is only a matter of time until they do if a nation and its people let itself become weak. America was once a proud nation of strength, unity and seemingly unlimited willpower but over the last half century, it has become increasingly more degenerate and its will more weakened with each and every year. In a strong nation there is no place or the tolerance for degeneracy, and yet today in America, degeneracy has become a badge of honor! A nation virtually dies upon that day when the primordial race-unit becomes so broken up and swamped by the influx of foreign elements, that its effective qualities have no longer a sufficient freedom of strength and action. It will not, of course, absolutely disappear, but it will in practice be so beaten down and enfeebled, that its power will be felt less and less as time goes on. When a people give into degeneracy lose there their nationhood of folkish unity and even the concern for their own self preservation, they are done for! The race enemies of that nation will swarm over them like a plaque of locusts! Nationalism is not just some definitive name, it is an actual living organism which assures the very preservation of its people and their homelands! Even common animals in Nature understand this!

Public opinion always worships the herd instinct,—i.e., the instinct of the weak,—while he, the strong man, fights for strong ideals.” ~ Friedrich Nietzsche

To most of the world nationalism appears to be an unsavory word affiliated primarily with racialism, and yet, most if not all of the races of the world are nationalists! Jews are nationalists, blacks are nationalists, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, Arabs, American Indians and Latinos and etc.. The White Race seems to be the only people that are scorned for even mentioning the idea of nationalism for the best interest of their people.

Unlike state nationalism which rules over its people, folkish nationalism grows up from the grass roots of the people. National heroes and heroines are honored and praised, while anything of universal interest is viewed with little concern. Firmly grounded in Rousseau’s doctrine of popular sovereignty, ‘folkish nationalism assumes that the proper forum for the exercise of the general will was provided by the national or ethnic community, not by the artificial frontiers of the existing states.’ Under folkish nationalism, one’s people and homelands are key, and the concept of ‘Blood and Soil’ are strongly valued and adhered to. The Folklore, or Volkskunde of a nation works towards joining the modern world of today with its most ancient cultural roots.

All of the Euro -Tribes over thousands of years passed through the phase of compiling, romanticizing, and creating the folklore and traditions of their individual nations. Rivers of blood have been spilled to preserve it. Without all of these key elements within the vibrant structure of nationalism, here discussed, we are left with only the humiliation of a defeated and soon to be extinct species. It is well known within the law of Nature that only the strong survive. The very moment that an individual or a collective people or tribe let their guard down, they become an instant target of prey to any of the many predators that choose to come in for the kill.

Race is real and has Social Consequences

Contra Contra Points on Race

The Existence of Race:
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/i…

Race Compared to Family and Gender:
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/i…

Understanding Haplogroups:
https://dna-explained.com/2013/01/24/…

Humans evolved about as much in the past 5,000 as in the past 500,000:
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-n…

http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/…

Roman view on Race and Sun Exposure:
https://books.google.com/books?id=EuA…

Nevan Sesardic – Race: a social destruction of a biological concept
http://www.ln.edu.hk/philoso/staff/se…

Nei and Takezaki on Genetic Distances within and between Humans and Chimpanzees:
http://php.scripts.psu.edu/nxm2/1996%…

Response to:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PY3lB…

Social Media:
https://twitter.com/thealthype
https://www.facebook.com/TheAltHypoth…

Alt Hype Reader:
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/w…

Race and IQ Reader
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/i…

Best Webpage on the Internet:
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/i…

Existence of Race:
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/i…

Heritability of Political Views:
http://www.luisarroyo.com/wp-content/…

https://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/j.paid.201…

https://sci-hub.cc/10.1111/j.1467-922…

http://www.procon.org/sourcefiles/gen…

GWAS on Political Views:
https://sci-hub.cc/10.1017/S002238161…

Population Differences in Individualism:

http://thealternativehypothesis.org/i…

Heritability with age:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23…

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/wp-conten…

Heritability of Psychological Traits:
http://www.psy.miami.edu/faculty/dmes…

Race and IQ Series:
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/i…

Race and Political Views:
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/i…

Race and Voting:
http://thealternativehypothesis.org/i…

3 Laws of Behavioral Genetics:
http://people.virginia.edu/~ent3c/pap…

General Heritability of IQ:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heritab…

(Yes, IMO wikipedia did a good job on that specific thing because I think “the left” has come to terms with the high heritability of intelligence within populations.)

Surveys on Intelligence Researchers on Intelligence:

2013 Survey that asked about the black-white IQ gap:
http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/wp-conten…

(On page 16. The pie chart is of the 1984 survey, the table is of the 2013 survey.)

2016 Paper on more PC Surveys:
http://journal.frontiersin.org/articl…

Recent evidence supporting Solutrean Hypothesis

Recent evidence supporting Solutrean Hypothesis

Brazil – 50,000 years ago
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/430944.stm (“Other evidence suggests that these first Americans were later massacred by invaders from Asia” and “Combined with rock art evidence of increasing violence at this time, it appears that the mongoloid people from the north invaded and wiped out the original Americans.”)

Phoenicians – Brazil
http://www.phoenicia.org/brazil.html

Cactus Hill – Virginia – 18,000 years ago
http://old.nationalreview.com/weekend/anthropology/anthropology-miller060901.shtml (“They also found evidence to support one of the most provocative developments of our time: the growing suspicion among physical anthropologists, archaeologists, and even geneticists that some of the first people who settled in the New World were Europeans.”)

Topper – South Carolina – 16,000-50,000 years ago
http://www.archaeology.org/online/news/topper.html (“In 1998, Goodyear put the Topper site on the map with his discovery of artifacts that seemed to predate the early Clovis culture that flourished in North America beginning some 13,000 years ago, long the conventional date for the first human colonization of the New World.”)

Meadowcroft Rockshelter – Pennsylvania – 13,000-19,000 years ago
http://people.delphiforums.com/MCCONAUGHY/Meadowcroft/meadow.htm

Saltville – Virginia – 14,500 years ago
http://www.cr.nps.gov/seac/outline/02-paleoindian/se_paleo/04-initial.htm

Mexico – 13,000 years ago
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2538323.stm (“The latest dating is not only confirmation that humans were present in the Americas much earlier than 12,000 years ago, but also that they were not related to early native Americans.”)

Arlington Springs Woman – California – 13,000 years ago
http://www.sbnature.org/research/anthro/charling.htm

Monte Verde, Chile – 12,500 years ago; hearth charcoal dated 33,000 years ago
http://www.unl.edu/rhames/monte_verde/MonteVerde.htm

Schafer, Hebior, Mud Lake – Wisconsin – 12,000 years ago
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2005AM/finalprogram/abstract_97188.htm
http://www.woollymammoth.org/

Sloth Hole – Florida – 12,000 years ago
http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/vertpaleo/aucilla10_1/SHsite.htm

Little Salt Spring – Florida – 12,000 years ago
http://www.stonepages.com/news/archives/001730.html

Windover Pond – Florida – 9,000 years ago
http://archaeology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.nbbd.com/godo/history/windover/

European skull – West Virginia – 1,300 years ago
http://www.prehistoricplanet.com/wv/features/petroglyphman/index.htm (“The Skull, that of an adult male, was sufficiently preserved to recognize a unique brachycephalic (round headed) feature indicating a possible European origin” and “Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from the roots of the teeth and compared to previously cataloged DNA sequences from ethnic groups around the world. No association was found among North American groups. The closest DNA matches were European.”)

Toloquilla Quarry, Mexico – 1,300,000 years ago
http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives/2005/12/volcanic_ash_mi.html?t=archive (“If these really are (human) footprints, and they were made 1.3 million years ago, that would be absolutely revolutionary.”)

The Biological Reality of Race

The Biological Reality of Race

The concept of race has long been under assault by egalitarian liberals, Boasian anthropologists, and other bien pensants who abhor the idea that every human being is not equally capable of the heights of accomplishment. The notion that humans differ systematically in various characteristics would, if accepted, put a huge damper in many left-liberal projects – one of the most prominent being education, on which the left wants to spend ever more billions in order to finally do away with racial achievement gaps – and perhaps most importantly would rob them of their generalized accusation of racism, directed at whites and used to explain the underachievement – or overachievement in the cases of things like crime, drug use, and illegitimacy – of various non-white ethnic groups.

One of the leading champions of the no-such-thing-as-race school of thought (if it can be said that any thought goes into it) has been the biologist and self-identified Marxist Richard Lewontin. His critique of the concept of race focuses on the fact that most genetic variation occurs within races, which is true enough when looking at only one genetic locus. However, when multiple loci are compared, it is seen that they vary systematically among races, and when these multiple loci are taken into account, it’s possible to classify individuals by race with almost perfect accuracy. Hence, Lewontin’s critique has come to be known as Lewontin’s fallacy.

A new paper by philosopher Neven Sesardic, “Race: a social destruction of a biological concept,” published in the journal Biology and Philosophy, takes the critique further.

A number of contemporary philosophers, anthropologists, geneticists, evolutionary biologists and psychologists have argued for some time that the concept of race does not have a biological reality. But what is actually being denied here? What exactly does it mean that a concept has (or does not have) a biological reality?

Much of Sesardic’s work here involves the clearing up of straw men. For example:

Naomi Zack claims that those who believe in the existence of human races ‘‘to this day… assume the following: (1) races are made up of individuals sharing the same essence; (2) each race is sharply discontinuous from all others…’’ (Zack 2002, 63—italics added).

Sesardic shows that hardly any scientist has ever believed Zack’s two propositions. Another straw man set up by a race denier says that there are no alleles distinctive of “this race or that”, and that therefore “races are not biologically real”. Sesardic rightly shows that this statement is a “parody” of what actual scientists believe.

Sesardic points out that the exactness demanded of the concept of race by those who believe that it has no biological reality are so demanding that, were they accepted as legitimate, there couldn’t even be any such thing as species, for, quoting Matt Ridley, “the characters that define a species will not be present in all members of that species and absent from all members of other species”.

As for Lewontin’s fallacy, Sesardic writes:

Lewontin’s univariate approach to the conceptualization of race is particularly clear when he asks: ‘‘How much difference in the frequencies of A, B, AB, and O blood groups does one require before deciding that it is large enough to declare two local populations are in separate ‘races’?’’ (Lewontin 1987, 200) This is the wrong question completely. Races are not distinguished from one another by some specially big difference of allelic frequencies in one trait, but rather by a combination of a number of small or moderate differences in many traits. That is, e pluribus, not ex uno.

Sesardic goes on to show that the best current science manifestly does support the biological reality of the concept of race.

Study: Human Ancestors Originated in Asia

Out of Asia?

Study: Human Ancestors Originated in Asia

By Jennifer Viegas
Discovery News

Three newly discovered primate species that lived 30 million years ago suggest that our first ancestors originated in Asia and not in Africa, challenging the well-known “Out of Africa” theory about human evolution.

The actuality could be something a bit more complicated, such as “Out of Asia into Africa and Back to Asia,” since some researchers now think Asian primates journeyed to Africa, where they evolved into humans, who then traveled both in and out of Africa.

According to a study published in this week’s Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, numerous fossil teeth for the three new anthropoids were found in the Bugti Hills of central Pakistan.

Scientists believe our world-traveling animal cousins were anthropoids, which means “apes” and refers to the group of primates from which humans evolved.

“The Oligocene period (30-25 million years ago) in South Asia was so far totally undocumented paleontologically,” said Laurent Marivaux, lead author of the paper.

“So, it is not surprising that the discovery of fossilized animals from this period is totally new for science, and that they (may) change or modify substantially our previous view on mammal evolution, notably here, the evolutionary history of anthropoid primates.”

He added, “The evolutionary history of these old anthropoid lineages represents the beginnings of the evolutionary history of humans.”

Marivaux and his team named the new anthropoids Bugtipithecus inexpectans, Phileosimias kamali and Phileosimias brahuiorum. They were tiny and somewhat similar to today’s lemurs, according to Marivaux, who is a paleontologist at the Institute of Evolutionary Science at Montpellier II University in France.

Their small, underdeveloped teeth reveal that the primates probably ate insects and fruit. Climate records for this period suggest that the animals lived in a warm, humid tropical rainforest.

Fossil remains for other animals indicate the primates shared the Asian rainforest with more than 20 different species of rodents, bats, carnivores, deer-like animals, pigs, a rhino-like creature, called Baluchitherium, and other primates.

Remains for later primates similar to the new anthropoids previously were found in China, Burma and Thailand. The newly excavated teeth now indicate that anthropoids had a larger range in Asia than thought, since the animals made their way to Pakistan.

Christopher Beard, curator and head of the Section of Vertebrate Paleontology at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, told Discovery News that he generally agreed with the new conclusions.

“Together, the fossil anthropoid primates that are known from China, Thailand, Myanmar and now Pakistan constitute an impressive amount of data indicating that the ‘higher primate’ lineage that today includes all monkeys, apes, and humans must have originated in Asia, not in Africa as earlier scientists believed,” Beard said.

He added that the new evidence, to him, indicated that “an early member of this (anthropoid Asian group) made its way to Africa, where they continued to evolve and diversify, eventually giving rise to living monkeys, apes and humans.”

Christopher Wills, professor of biological sciences at the University of California, San Diego, agreed that early anthropoid evolution likely did not just occur in Africa.

Wills told Discovery News that the evolution probably included “substantial migrations over long distances, in and out of Africa perhaps.”

Beard and Marivaux said the early anthropoids that stayed in Asia continued to evolve too, but not in a direction that led to apes and humans. The consensus among most experts is that humans only emerged in Africa.

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Africa Wasn’t Negroid Until Historic Times

Here’s some important information about the racial history of Africa stated clearly and succinctly:

“True” Black Africans appear as a recent adaptive radiation in the above dendrograms, apparently branching off from an ancestral Pygmy population — a line of ancestry also indicated by osteological data (Coon 1962:651-656; Watson et al. 1996). This radiation seems to have occurred somewhere in West Africa. Before the Bantu expansion about 3,000 years ago, true Black Africans were absent from the continent’s central, eastern, and southern regions (Cavalli-Sforza 1986:361-362; Oliver 1966). They were also absent from the middle Nile until about 4,000 years ago, at which time they begin to appear in paintings from Pharaonic Egypt and in skeletal remains from Nubia (Junker 1921).

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For more detailed information about the racial differences between pre-historic and modern sub-Saharan Africans, see the work of anthropologist W.W. Howells.