7,000-Year-Old Europeans in Florida, North America

An amateur diver has recently made an unprecedented discovery by unearthing a huge 7,000-year-old burial site off the coast of Florida and although experts say that the people buried here are the ancestors of the Native Americans, are they in fact ancient Europeans who migrated during the last ice age?

South Africa Nearing the Point of No Return

Gregory Hood, American Renaissance, 20 February 2018

For those ostensibly interested in building a multiracial democracy, the recent history of Zimbabwe should be a warning, not a model. However, South Africa appears poised to follow its northern neighbor’s disastrous policies of land confiscation and white scapegoating, accelerating the former First World nation’s decline. International observers are cheered by the departure of the “Rainbow Nation’s” famously corrupt president Jacob Zuma, but the new South African President, Cyril Ramaphosa, faces the all but impossible task of repairing the country’s crumbling economy while appeasing a black electorate that wants to seize white farmland.

President Ramaphosa, leader of South Africa’s dominant African National Congress (ANC), is taking office with sky-high expectations from both South Africans and the international community. However, there has been so much economic damage from Mr. Zuma’s administration that both S&P Global and Fitch have downgraded South Africa’s long term debt to “junk,” and Moody’s has put the country on review. If Moody’s follows S&P and Fitch, South Africa’s government will have to spend more on debt payments, and investment capital would flee the country, making it even more difficult to fund social programs. South Africa’s finance minister (who is seen as a Zuma loyalist and whose job is in doubt) says repairing South Africa’s credit rating will be a top priority for the new government.

The markets are responding positively to Mr. Ramaphosa’s inauguration; the rand increased in value and stocks soared after Mr. Zuma was forced out. Optimistic press reports claim South Africa is ready to “explode” economically. Also, racial tensions are said to be exaggerated, since Mr. Zuma failed in his attempt to cling to power by blaming white people. South Africa’s legal process functioned as it should, and Mr. Zuma was forced out peacefully, despite fears he was going to use militant tactics to stay in power. Since Mr. Ramaphosa’s main priorities are economic, he hardly sounds like a radical.

JOHANNESBURG, March 14, 2017 South Africa’s Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa addresses the Global Entrepreneurship Congress (GEC) 2017 at Sandton Convention Center, Johannesburg,?South?Africa, on March 14, 2017.?The Global Entrepreneurship Congress (GEC) 2017 opened on Tuesday in Johannesburg by South Africa’s Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa with the aim of sharing ideas on how small businesses can grow and make positive contributions to their countries. (Credit Image: © Xinhua via ZUMA Wire)

Nevertheless, Mr. Ramaphosa’s margin for maneuver is far narrower than enthusiastic coverage would suggest. While trying to calm international markets, he has also called for confronting “inequality,” a question that in South Africa carries major racial overtones. He will find it hard to do both.

First, more than anything else, Mr. Ramaphosa has to tackle the problems of corruption and mismanagement in state-owned companies, problems that got worse under Mr. Zuma. Mr. Zuma built his power on a network of patronage and political obligations, and rooting out his loyalists will take time. It is also likely to be divisive for the already fragmented ANC, since Mr. Zuma still has supporters, especially in his stronghold of KwaZulu-Natal. Mr. Zuma is reported to have had corrupt partnerships with the Guptas—an Indian immigrant family with a huge holdings in South Africa’s resources—and his upcoming trial will only heighten tensions within the ANC.

The very trait that makes Mr. Ramaphosa attractive to foreign investors—his perceived friendliness to the free market—also opens up a line of attack for his opponents inside and outside the ANC. Mr. Ramaphosa is, by South African standards, soft on the question of race and redistribution of wealth. The main division is around the term “white monopoly capital.” Mr. Zuma and his allies wanted the term, with its explicit racial identification, designated in party propaganda as an enemy to be fought. Mr. Ramaphosa argued that the term, which once formed part of the ANC’s revolutionary lexicon, should be left in the past. Others still use such language. For example, Jacob Zuma’s son Edward, even while calling for party unity behind Mr. Ramaphosa, declared his father’s fall a victory for “white monopoly capital and the Western agents who are hell-bent on destroying our country.”

Julius Malema of the leftist Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) party has vowed to give Mr. Ramaphosa even more trouble than he gave Mr. Zuma. He recirculated reports of Mr. Ramaphosa’s involvement in a massacre of striking mine workers in 2012 and reportedly said that he “wanted to show white capitalists that Ramaphosa will not save them.” Since Mr. Malema is already blasting Mr. Ramaphosa for having “no plan,” the new president will be under pressure to act quickly. While the EFF has a small political following compared to that of the ANC, the fact Mr. Malema is a former head of the ANC Youth League shows the potential for the ANC to splinter on questions of economic redistribution and race.

Mr. Malema is already finding something to cheer about, since Mr. Ramaphosa has declared his support for a program of taking land without compensation. This would seem to conflict with his promise to increase economic growth and attract foreign investment. Foreign capital shies away from countries where it can be seized without recompense, but Mr. Ramaphosa probably felt he had to offer the Left something. However, he suggests farmland should be taken only in a way that “increases agricultural production, improves food security.”

It is not clear how this can be done.

The agricultural association Agri SA has warned that any attempt to change the constitution to legalize taking land without compensation would be economic suicide. Some analysts suggest such a plan wouldn’t even do much to reduce economic inequality but would simply harm investment and food security. Even ministers from Zimbabwe are telling South Africa that following the Robert Mugabe model is a bad idea.

Mr. Ramaphosa seems to be trying to have it both ways. He has recommended in the past that people remain calm about the land issue. In January, he acknowledged that it was a “delicate” problem, distancing himself from the Mr. Malema’s EFF and the radicals. Yet telling white farmers their land could be taken and that without them South Africa could be a “garden of Eden” is hardly conducive to calm. The Boer Afrikaner Volksraad, an Afrikaner activist group, said any land seizure would be a “declaration of war” and promised retaliation. Since Mr. Malema told his followers last year to simply “take” land they like, there is a strong possibility of either a violent confrontation or a political debacle.

If confidence in Mr. Ramaphosa is shattered, that could be the final blow to South Africa’s rickety credit ratings. Even if Mr. Ramaphosa succeeds in one aspect of his economic program, that may increase pressure for him to confiscate land. One of South Africa’s most important industries is mining, where there are especially high expectations for Mr. Ramaphosa. However, as mining operations expand, they may spill over onto arable land, which edges out tribal communities and could increase demands for redistribution of white farms.

What’s more, it’s questionable whether any redistribution program can be efficiently administered until corruption is rooted out, since redistribution would probably spawn new forms of fraud and bribery. Given the confusion about who actually owns a great deal of South Africa’s farmland, even the most careful tallies would be marred with inaccuracies and arbitrary judgments.

White South Africans are facing more immediate threats than the legal ones coming from the new head of state. After the ANC takeover, the South African government implemented strict gun control and outlawed the “commandos,” or Afrikaner self-defense groups, making it far harder for farmers to protect themselves. Not surprisingly, the murder rate for Boer farmers is famously high. On October 30, 2017, white South Africans hosted nationwide #BlackMonday protests, which Afrikaner advocate Dan Roodt credits with creating a “sense of community and solidarity” among whites, who now realize the ANC government will not protect them. Organizations such as the Suidlanders claim they will be able to safeguard the white population in the event of a crisis, but there is already a constant low-level crisis. Just last Friday, there was yet another farm murder, with a 73-year-old man killed after three gun-toting men broke into his house.

The violence against white South African farmers is already on the brink of mainstream attention. Well-known British columnist Katie Hopkins created a media hubub after being banned from South Africa earlier this month for “racist views”—that is, for pointing out the frequency of farm murders—and Lauren Southern’s firsthand reporting on violence against white South Africans is already in post-production as a documentary entitled “Farmlands.” Last summer, Ann Coulter said “White South African farmers facing genocide” were “the only real refugees.”

There’s another major crisis looming for Mr. Ramaphosa. Cape Town is on the verge of running out of water. “Day Zero,” the day when the municipal water supply will be cut off, has been set for June 4. Cape Town has dramatically increased in population over the last two decades, adding more strain on an already buckling infrastructure. Like the rest of South Africa, Cape Town faces huge divisions between its white and black population. Although there has been so much advance warning that serious civil disorder seems unlikely, the spectacle of one of the country’s greatest cities running out of water will hardly inspire investor confidence.

The situation of white South Africans is nearing a turning point. Lawless violence and “lawful” confiscation could end Afrikaner farming. Whites are being increasingly scapegoated for the country’s problems by the likes of Mr. Malema’s EFF and the left wing of the ANC. And while Mr. Ramaphosa may symbolize a return to sanity, his call for land confiscation suggests he fears losing the left wing of his party. Even if he does not follow through with confiscation, raising the hopes of black leftists could have dangerous consequences for white South Africans, who are now essentially hostages in their own country.

However, apocalypse is probably not around the corner. Some of the more excitable conservative and white advocacy websites have long warned of impending “white genocide,” but the handover of power to the ANC did not trigger mass extermination. There was no Haitian-style orgy of bloodletting after the death of Nelson Mandela. Though the ANC continues to sing violent songs such as “Bring Me My Machine Gun,” President Ramaphosa is trying to strike a conciliatory tone and even suggests land confiscation will be done in an orderly way after a process of study, not through Mr. Malema’s preferred tactic of arbitrarily claiming land. The main priority of the South African government is appeasing the international financial system, not slaughtering white farmers.

If Mr. Ramaphosa succeeds, it would make South Africa’s political situation more repressive. South Africa’s ANC seems to have found a model to emulate in China’s political system, which unites the interest of the ruling party with that of the state. The rightist Democratic Alliance and the forthrightly leftist Economic Freedom Fighters EFF gained ground at the expense of the ANC as South Africans revolted against Jacob Zuma’s corruption. Now that Mr. Zuma is gone, there is a possibility the ANC will be able to reestablish its all-but-all-powerful place in South African politics. If Mr. Ramaphosa can give the ANC political hegemony, South Africa could gradually become a de jure, rather than a de facto, one party state. Whites would have even less power under such a system than they have now.

For now, the most likely outcome is that Mr. Ramaphosa will to try to please “white monopoly capital” abroad while appealing to leftists at home through land confiscation, ultimately satisfying no one. Black crime and violence will rise, and public trust will diminish. Whites are already in danger, with each house operating as a kind of fortress. Private security services are practically a necessity.

As long as the violence proceeds at a level low enough not to draw mainstream media attention, there will be no real political pressure to change. Ultimately, South African whites pose little political threat to the South African elite. The government will be indifferent to their welfare, provided they are not killed suddenly enough to cause a media outcry. Whites will simply be whittled down. Eventually, to speak of a Boer “people” will be as fanciful as speaking of a Rhodesian “people.”

The solution is for white South Africans to break away from the ANC-controlled system. A number of white leaders during the final months of apartheid did commit to seceding from South Africa and creating a “Boer Volkstaat.” However, one of the most influential right-wing leaders, General Constand Viljoen, betrayed the movement at the last minute, instead suggesting participation in “democratic elections”—a strange strategy when facing an overwhelming black majority. Gerneral Viljoen supposedly extracted a promise from the new government to “consider” a Volkstaat, but, predictably enough, none was ever really considered. He dedicated himself to creating an Afrikaner political party, “Freedom Front Plus,” which generally wins less than 1 percent of the vote. Boers cannot vote their way out of this problem.

But votes do count for something, and there is one place where the Freedom Front Plus wins landslides: the thriving Boer community of Orania. And Orania’s leadership believes now is the time to start pushing for a homeland, arguing that conditions are more favorable than ever. Julius Malema has made a cordial visit to the town, and, incredibly, the EFF won four votes there.

Yet, there is great antipathy towards Orania, and the South African government is unlikely to let the Boers go their own way. South Africa’s powerful trade unions are urging the government to crush Orania and its plans to introduce a new e-currency. It is so obvious that a Boer Volkstaat would be a success that even a National Review columnist has called for a white South African city-state. But that’s precisely why the ANC can’t let the Afrikaners go. Losing their resources and tax revenue would be a heavy blow to South Africa’s struggling economy.

There will be no easy road to Afrikaner freedom. This great people must be ready either to seize a sudden opportunity in the midst of violence or continue cautiously to build a community as the country grows more desperate and divided.

White advocates around the world ought to be deeply concerned with the fate of the Afrikaners, even aside from humanitarian reasons. South Africa shows the future for white people in a majority non-white world. Whites are rendered collectively powerless, politically oppressed, and somehow still labeled as privileged. And while the government provides some minimum level of protection of property to keep the economy going, leftist political parities representing the non-white masses are constantly urging—and gradually getting—an ever larger share of white property.

The Boers can’t fight this battle alone. The status quo is untenable and dangerous, and the only likely alternatives are worse. White advocates must denounce the constant violence against the Boers, ensure no action is taken against Orania, and lobby for white South Africans to be treated as refugees if they flee their homeland. Most importantly, white South Africans need support from our people’s larger diaspora, whether the attack continues against them at its current pace or whether it accelerates as Mr. Ramaphosa moves to seize their land.

White South Africans have inhabited their country as long as white Americans have inhabited ours. In the long run, their fate will be our fate. Mr. Ramaphosa must learn there is a line not to be crossed. Land confiscation is that line. If he decides to fight the Boers, whites around the world must send him a message: He’s fighting us all.

Did Aryan Giants Build the European Megaliths?

The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus insisted that giants must have once existed, because only they, with their awesome strength and superhuman capabilities, could have built the dolmens, menhirs, massive walls, and other structures that are strewn across Western Europe. The idea of a vast megalithic culture that once dominated much of Europe in the remote past is taken up by the author Paul Dunbavin in his book Atlantis of the West. For Dunbavin, the megalithic structures of Europe are not just simple creations built by a Stone Age culture, but the sophisticated handiwork of an advanced and ancient race, possibly the Atlanteans. (Indeed, Britain was once named Albion, after a Titan king of Atlantis.) Dunbavin believes that Atlantis lies beneath the Irish Sea and was submerged in 3100 BCE when a comet struck Earth, causing the Earth’s crust to shift and thus shrinking some of the existing landmasses, including those in and around ancient Europe (Dunbavin 2003).

Located on a rocky promontory near Sissian in Armenia is the profoundly ancient site of Zorats Karer, also known as Karahunj, which has been dubbed the Armenian Stonehenge. It dates to approximately 7600–4500 BCE, and as such, is probably the oldest stone circle in Europe. The rocks of this circle are quite large and extremely heavy. Extensive research carried out by Paris Herouni and Elma Parsamyan of the Biurakan Observatory has led them to conclude that the site was dedicated to the Armenian sun god Ari in that some of the stones mirror the brightest star of the Cygnus constellation—Deneb.
Tellingly, some old Armenian folktales tell of a distant epoch when the sun god Ari ordered a fallen race of giants to move the immense blocks of stone to the site and construct it. (Note the similarity between the name of the sun god Ari and “Aryan” and also the correlation with the Aryan sun god myths).

The question of whether Zorats Karer could be the oldest observatory of its kind in Europe, if not the world, was taken up by Oxford astrophysicist Mihran Vardanyan. He agrees that this site was no doubt an ancient observatory, but also suggests that it may well have been an ancient necropolis:
The most commonly accepted theory about the meaning of Karahunj is that it is an ancient burial ground, or necropolis—a place to act as a bridge between the earth and the heavens in the cyclical journey of the soul involving life, death and rebirth. The necropolis thesis is certainly true for after our initial investigations of the central circle, it is clear the site was aligned to the sun, most likely aligned to the moon and—what is really exciting, possibly even some stars or planets—owing to the placement of small holes drilled through the monoliths and aimed at the horizon. It is these holes which makes this exceptional megalithic site unique out of all similar European sites. (Vardanyan 2011)

In December 2010, the popular History channel documentary series Ancient Aliens featured Zorats Karer on episode 14, “Unexplained Structures.” The show linked Herouni and Parsamyan’s Deneb theory with the discovery of three hundred exoplanets by NASA’s Kepler planet-finding satellite within the Cygnus constellation (History 2010). This connection, without a doubt, is truly sensational and demands further investigation.

One of the most ancient and archaeologically significant megalithic sites in the world is Baalbek, where the bones of what may be ancient giants have been found. Baalbek lies approximately eighty-six kilometers northeast of the city of Beirut in eastern Lebanon. This most enigmatic of holy places is one of the Near East’s most important Roman and pre-Roman temple sites of study by historians and archaeologists. In 1898, a German expedition there claimed to have discovered no evidence of occupation prior to the Roman period, despite other claims suggesting a very ancient habitation of the site.

Recent archaeological finds have supported the latter idea, for in a deep trench at the edge of the Jupiter temple platform, Neolithic artifacts were discovered, along with the skeletons of three individuals of giant stature! Pottery dating to the Seleucid era (323–64 BCE) as well as Roman era remains (64 BCE–312 CE) were also discovered.

During both the Seleucid and Roman occupations, the town surrounding the immense religious monument was known as Heliopolis, the “City of the Sun,” and the sun god Jupiter was the focal point of the shrine. (The Roman god Jupiter had overtaken and supplanted the Greek god Zeus, and replaced the earlier god Baal, who incidentally shared some common characteristics with Zeus and, subsequently, Jupiter.)

Archaeologists now agree that Baalbek is more than nine thousand years old, with continual settlement dating from the Neolithic Age to the Roman Iron Age. Surrounding the site are massive walls built with twenty-four monoliths, weighing some three hundred tons each. The tallest wall, on the western flank of the temple site, contains what is known as the trilithon, a row of three stones, each 19 meters long, 4.3 meters high, and 3.6 meters broad, cut from solid limestone. Each stone weighs approximately eight hundred tons. Even with today’s technology, moving them into place would be a tremendous architectural accomplishment indeed.

According to David Hatcher Childress (2000): “Large numbers of pilgrims came from Mesopotamia as well as the Nile Valley to the Temple of Ba’al-Astarte. The site is mentioned in the Bible in the Book of Kings. There is a vast underground network of passages beneath the acropolis. Their function is unknown, but they were possibly used to shelter pilgrims, probably at a later period.”

How then was Baalbek constructed? Ancient Arab writings explain that the first stages of Baalbek, including the trilithon and other massive stone blocks, were built following the Great Flood at the mandate of King Nimrod, by a “tribe of giants” (Childress 2000). Again, we see the same giant motif, lending credence to the race of giants theory. How could so many disparate cultures in so many isolated locations all around the world arrive at the same supposition: giants were responsible for building the great megalithic monuments of prehistory? Another significant megalithic site needs little introduction. We are referring, of course, to the glorious Stonehenge, perhaps the most famous megalithic structure in the world.

One fascinating story concerning Stonehenge is a twelfth-century account written by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his work Historia Regum Britanniae, also known as The History of the Kings of Britain. Geoffrey maintained that the rocks of Stonehenge were healing rocks that had been imported from Africa and that they had immense curative properties. Collectively called the Giant’s dance, Stonehenge had, according to Geoffrey, originally been constructed on Mount Killaraus in Ireland.

The fifth-century Arthur-like figure Ambrosius Aurelius, at the behest of Merlin, designated Stonehenge to be instead a monument for the knights who perished fighting off Saxon incursions. Thus, the king dispatched Merlin, Uther Pendragon, and fifteen thousand knights to Ireland to capture the monument and bring it back to Britain. The knights slew seven thousand Irish warriors, but were unable to move the rocks with ropes and brute force. Then something very strange happened. Using the power of sound, Merlin dismantled the stones and transported them through a dimensional rift directly to Salisbury, where they were reassembled using levitation. Ambrosius Aurelius then died and was buried within Stonehenge, which is also known as the “Giants’ Ring of Stonehenge.”

Until recently there has been no accurate method for pinpointing when the stones were quarried and erected. However, a new dating method known as chlorine-23 has now been developed. Recent attempts at using this new method on Stonehenge have revealed that the monument, far from being only 4,500 years old as is maintained by current academia, in actual fact dates to 25,000 BCE.

Mainstream scientists have rejected these figures and, subsequently, do not consider this method of dating to be reliable. However, the method is deemed to be highly accurate. (Except when it contradicts what the establishment wants to believe as opposed to what the facts clearly point to!) In rebuttal, established academicians claim that the proponents of chlorine-23 themselves are merely seeing what they want to believe, in a total reversal of the truth!

http://www.renegadetribune.com/aryan-giants-build-european-megaliths/

Discovery of 9.7m-Year-Old Teeth in Germany Could Rewrite Human History

Discovery of 9.7m-Year-Old Teeth in Germany Could Rewrite Human History
  • Teeth closely resemble those belonging to two ancient human fossils in Africa
  • However, the German teeth are twice as old as both of the African skeletons
  • If the finding is confirmed, the teeth will be the oldest hominin fossils ever found
  • Could change our understanding of human evolution and ‘out of Africa’ theory
  • The teeth are currently being examined in detail by a team of scientists and the first paper to report on the finding will be published next week 

The discovery of a set of 9.7-million-year-old teeth has led archaeologists to raise questions about the commonly believed ‘out-of-Africa’ theory of human origins.

The teeth, which were discovered in a former bed of the Rhine river, don’t resemble those of any other human species found in Europe or Asia.

The find suggests that contrary to popular belief, Europe may be the cradle of humanity.

The researchers claim they were so baffled by the findings, that it has taken them a year to announce the discovery.

The teeth are currently being examined in detail by a team of scientists and the first paper to report on the finding will be published next week.

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The discovery of a set of 9.7-million-year-old teeth has led archaeologists to raise questions about the commonly believed 'out-of-Africa' theory of human origins

The discovery of a set of 9.7-million-year-old teeth has led archaeologists to raise questions about the commonly believed ‘out-of-Africa’ theory of human origins

KEY FINDINGS

The set of teeth were discovered near the town of Eppelsheim.

The teeth resemble those belonging to Lucy – a 3.2 million-year-old skeleton of a human ancestor found in Ethiopia.

But they don’t look like those of any other species found in Europe or Asia.

This raises questions about whether humans originated in Africa, as is commonly believed.

In September 2016, researchers from the Mainz Natural History Museum in Germany discovered the set of teeth near the town of Eppelsheim.

In their study, published on ResearchGate, the researchers, led by Dr Herbert Lutz, wrote: ‘Both teeth, the crowns of an upper left canine and an upper right first molar, are exceptionally well preserved and obviously come from the same body of unknown sex.’

The molar was found to share characteristics with other species, including Lucy – a 3.2 million-year-old skeleton of a human ancestor found in Ethiopia.

In September 2016, researchers from the Mainz Natural History Museum in Germany discovered the set of teeth near the town of Eppelsheim

In September 2016, researchers from the Mainz Natural History Museum in Germany discovered the set of teeth near the town of Eppelsheim

The teeth, which were discovered in a former bed of the Rhine river near Eppelsheim, don't resemble those of any other human species found in Europe or Asia

The teeth, which were discovered in a former bed of the Rhine river near Eppelsheim, don’t resemble those of any other human species found in Europe or Asia

But the canine revealed potentially hominin qualities, which have never been seen in teeth discovered in Europe or Asia.

This raises questions about whether humans originated in Africa, as is commonly believed.

Speaking to The Merkurist, Dr Lutz said: ‘They are clearly ape teeth.

An analysis of one of the teeth revealed honey-comb-like arranged enamel, which led the researchers to believe it belonged to a hominin species 

An analysis of one of the teeth revealed honey-comb-like arranged enamel, which led the researchers to believe it belonged to a hominin species

The canine revealed potentially hominin qualities, which have never been seen in teeth discovered in Europe or Asia

The canine revealed potentially hominin qualities, which have never been seen in teeth discovered in Europe or Asia

‘Their characteristics resemble African finds that are four to five million years younger than the fossils excavated in Eppelsheim.

‘This is a tremendous stroke of luck, but also a great mystery.’

The researchers were initially so baffled by the findings, that they took a year to publish them.

Two of the teeth were found embedded in rock, in what was the former bed of the Rhine river in Germany

Two of the teeth were found embedded in rock, in what was the former bed of the Rhine river in Germany

The molar was found to share characteristics with other species, including Lucy ¿ a 3.2 million-year-old skeleton of a human ancestor found in Ethiopia

The molar was found to share characteristics with other species, including Lucy – a 3.2 million-year-old skeleton of a human ancestor found in Ethiopia

At a press conference announcing the discovery, the mayor of Mainz said: ‘I don’t want to over-dramatise it, but I would hypothesise that we shall have to start rewriting the history of mankind after today.’

While the findings have now been published, Dr Lutz said the ‘real work’ had only just begun.

Until now, it was widely believed that modern humans first appeared in east Africa between 400,000 and 200,000 years ago, before our species dispersed around the world around 70,000 years ago

Until now, it was widely believed that modern humans first appeared in east Africa between 400,000 and 200,000 years ago, before our species dispersed around the world around 70,000 years ago

WHO WAS LUCY?

Lucy’s remains were uncovered in the Afar region of Ethiopia in the 1970s.

Paleontologists believe she is the best preserved example of Australopithecus afarensis, an ancient branch of the human family tree.

The mineralised skeleton is believed to be 3.18 million years old and is the most complete of any upright, walking human ancestor.

Lucy's remains were uncovered in the Afar region of Ethiopia in the 1970s. Paleontologists believe she is the best preserved example of Australopithecus afarensis, an ancient branch of the human family tree

Lucy’s remains were uncovered in the Afar region of Ethiopia in the 1970s. Paleontologists believe she is the best preserved example of Australopithecus afarensis, an ancient branch of the human family tree

Previous studies suggested that Lucy was just 4 ft tall (122 cm) and weighted just 65 lbs (29 kg).

Since her discovery, researchers have debated whether she spent her life in the trees or spent time walking on the plains as well.

Combining the new data paints a picture of an ancestor which may have spent a considerable amount of her time in trees.

Lucy's skeleton, discovered in 1974 in the Afar region of Ethiopia, has been the subject of vigorous debate concerning the role of arborealism in early human evolution

Lucy’s skeleton, discovered in 1974 in the Afar region of Ethiopia, has been the subject of vigorous debate concerning the role of arborealism in early human evolution

There is lots of evidence of great apes roaming Europe millions of years ago, but there is yet to be any confirmed evidence of hominins on the continent at this time.

Until now, it was widely believed that modern humans first appeared in east Africa between 400,000 and 200,000 years ago, before our species dispersed around the world around 70,000 years ago.

The human lineage was believed to have split from the chimpanzee lineage in Africa around six to eight million years ago, although fossils from around this time are scarce.

The teeth will now go on display at a state exhibition, before returning to Mainz’s Natural History Museum.

COMPLEX EVOLUTION OF MAN

55 million years ago – First primitive primates evolve

15 million years ago – Hominidae (great apes) evolve from the ancestors of the gibbon

8 million years ago – First gorillas evolve. Later, chimp and human lineages diverge

5.5 million years ago – Ardipithecus, early ‘proto-human’ shares traits with chimps and gorillas

4 million years ago – Ape like early humans, the Australopithecines appeared. They had brains no larger than a chimpanzee’s but other more human like features

3.9-2.9 million years ago – Australoipithecus afarensis lived in Africa.  

2.7 million years ago – Paranthropus, lived in woods and had massive jaws for chewing

2.3 million years ago – Homo habalis first thought to have appeared in Africa

1.85 million years ago – First ‘modern’ hand emerges

1.8 million years ago – Homo ergaster begins to appear in fossil record

1.6 million years ago – Hand axes become the first major technological innovation

800,000 years ago – Early humans control fire and create hearths. Brain size increases rapidly

400,000 years ago – Neanderthals first begin to appear and spread across Europe and Asia

200,000 years ago – Homo sapiens – modern humans – appear in Africa

40,000 years ago – Modern humans reach Europe

European’s in America 22,000 years ago.

Dam Bursts: Washington Post reports “Soultrean Theory.”

Ten years ago scientists who talked about ancient Caucasians in North America were denounced as “racists” in the media. Now it is mainstream science backed by the top institutions. In the past two years the entire history of the first inhabitants of North America has been turned upside down.

From Washington Post…

When the crew of the Virginia scallop trawler Cinmar hauled a mastodon tusk onto the deck in 1970, another oddity dropped out of the net: a dark, tapered stone blade, nearly eight inches long and still sharp.

Forty years later, this rediscovered prehistoric slasher has reopened debate on a radical theory about who the first Americans were and when they got here.

When the crew of the Virginia scallop trawler Cinmar hauled a mastodon tusk onto the deck in 1970, another oddity dropped out of the net: a dark, tapered stone blade, nearly eight inches long and still sharp.

Forty years later, this rediscovered prehistoric slasher has reopened debate on a radical theory about who the first Americans were and when they got here.

Archaeologists have long held that North America remained unpopulated until about 15,000 years ago, when Siberian people walked or boated into Alaska and then moved down the West Coast.

But the mastodon relic found near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay turned out to be 22,000 years old, suggesting that the blade was just as ancient.

Whoever fashioned that blade was not supposed to be here.

Its makers probably paddled from Europe and arrived in America thousands of years ahead of the western migration, making them the first Americans, argues Smithsonian Institution anthropologist Dennis Stanford.

“I think it’s feasible,” said Tom Dillehay, a prominent archaeologist at Vanderbilt University. “The evidence is building up, and it certainly warrants discussion.”

At the height of the last ice age, Stanford says, mysterious Stone Age European people known as the Solutreans paddled along an ice cap jutting into the North Atlantic. They lived like Inuits, harvesting seals and seabirds.

The Solutreans eventually spread across North America, Stanford says, hauling their distinctive blades with them and giving birth to the later Clovis culture, which emerged some 13,000 years ago.

When Stanford proposed this “Solutrean hypothesis” in 1999, colleagues roundly rejected it. One prominent archaeologist suggested that Stanford was throwing his career away.

But now, 13 years later, Stanford and Bruce Bradley, an archaeologist at England’s University of Exeter, lay out a detailed case — bolstered by the curious blade and other stone tools recently found in the mid-Atlantic — in a new book, “Across Atlantic Ice.”