7,000-Year-Old Europeans in Florida, North America

An amateur diver has recently made an unprecedented discovery by unearthing a huge 7,000-year-old burial site off the coast of Florida and although experts say that the people buried here are the ancestors of the Native Americans, are they in fact ancient Europeans who migrated during the last ice age?

Minoan and Mycenaean DNA Show Nordic and Western European Origins

For the first time in history, geneticists at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute have obtained and analyzed the genomes of the founders of two of Europe’s earliest civilizations. These ancient cultures known as the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations, existed during the Bronze Age, some 3,000 years ago. In an article posted in Science Daily on August 2, 2017: “The new analysis suggests that the Minoans and Mycenaeans share a great deal of their genetic heritage. . . Who these Bronze Age people were – the people who lived in a world dimly remembered in the poetry of Homer – has been a great mystery,” explains Dr. David Reich, an evolutionary geneticist at Harvard Medical School. “We set out to investigate the origins of these ancient civilizations.”

Early Mycenaean Historical Origins

The Greek mainland was long thought to be inhabited by Old European Mediterranean types. In the Second Millennium B.C., an Indo-European group called the Mycenae invaded the Peloponnesus, and established the Mycenaean civilization. This period is what historians call the Homeric Age, so named because little is known about this epoch except what is gleaned from Homer’s epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. It was the Mycenaean people who were featured in the epic poems by Homer and they are considered the true predecessors of later Greek civilization. The Mycenaean culture traded with the Hittites, who were another group of Aryans that built a thriving civilization in what is now Turkey. The Mycenaean civilization established a presence on the Western Coast of Turkey and extended their influence as far West as what is now Morocco and as far East as Syria. The coastal civilization in Turkey was known as Ionia and it would become the center of the great tradition of free-thinking scientists like Democritus, Anaximander, Eratosthenes, Euripides, Aristarchus, and many others. Pythagoras was also among them, though his teachings led to more to mysticism and esoteric forms of speculation than hard science. This is one of the earliest examples of Aryan accomplishment. Anyone who does not think the White world contributed to our global civilization, need only start by looking at the Greeks. According to Arthur Kemp in March of the Titans: The Complete History of the White Race: “Mycenaeans are regarded as the forerunners of the classic Greek civilization. They left a magnificent city at Mycenae, whose most famous inhabitant was King Agamemnon. Mycenae was sacked and destroyed in 1100 B.C. by an invasion of another Indo-European tribe, the Dorics.” (Kemp 31)

Origins of the Minoan Civilization of Crete

In a recent study, researchers analyzed ancient DNA from human remains discovered on the Greek island of Crete, not far from the famed palace of Knossos discovered by the British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans. Most archaeologists and scholars until 2013 continued to support the non-European model for the origin of Minoan civilization. This stated that the culture-founding population of Crete, which had been considered Europe’s first true civilization, was believed to have come from Africa or the Middle East, anywhere but mainland Europe. An earlier study of Minoan DNA conducted in 2013 had put an end this never-ending controversy. According to BBC News, scientists analyzed the DNA of 37 individuals from burials throughout the island of Crete. These burials were thought to date to the middle of the Minoan period – around 3,700 years ago. The study focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the teeth extracted from skeletal remains. This type of DNA is passed down unchanged from mother to child. They then compared the mtDNA with that of over 130 populations worldwide. The end result was that their DNA matched not with African or Semitic peoples, but with Western and Northwestern Europeans. The closest matches were Sardinia, Iberia, Northwestern France and Scandinavia – not Africa, Canaan (Israel) or the Middle East.

This new evidence now suggests an alternative racial origin for the Old Europeans or Pre-Aryans, as Marija Gimbutas called them. By examining the DNA of human remains on the island of Crete, which archaeologists class as one of the chief Old European civilizations, it now appears that the Pre-Aryans were not of a different racial stock from the Indo-Europeans at all. Rather, they were of Nordic and Atlantic-Iberian origins from Western Europe and the Scandinavian peninsula. The Pre-Aryans and Indo-Europeans are both the same racially speaking, as the Indo-Europeans. The Aryans and Pre-Aryans were not racial populations at all, but separate cultural and religious groups created by the genius of the White race. Rather than calling an end to our emphasis on Aryan origins, it just further stresses that we are a united race that once inhabited the far north then swept down and occupied much of the ancient world. In this respect, Old Europeans are not the same as the Mediterranean peoples, which now are evidently of mixed race. In ancient times, the phenotype of Europeans was homogenous, and undeniably Nordic. Since we are without a question a race which, predominately, speaks an Aryan language and is part of an Aryan culture, the best word describing our ancient heritage is “Aryan”. Further studies done on DNA samples taken from North America to the Central Asian steppes indicates one fact: at one time the White race was the dominant force on planet Earth, and that our seemingly impending demise has been in the works since the beginning of our racial history. Hitler pointed out that since the first stirrings of human civilization, it has been the Jews, and the Jews alone, who have maintained their true grip on world history.  It is now time that we take control of the world ourselves, and put the Jew in his place now and forever. Hitler pointed out that a victorious Jew would be “the funeral wreath of humanity.”

I mentioned that the White racial presence extended as far as Japan. There were, in fact, Aryan-speaking Nordics in Japan and parts of the Pacific that do not exist today. Now little remains of the once dominant Caucasian populations that thrived there. However, the power and intensity of Caucasian artistic and technological brilliance, at least in China and Japan, still exists today and those cultures owe such accomplishments to a lost Caucasian race.

The White race manifests itself in many different cultural, religious and linguistic forms. The inherent biology of the White race, with its superior intellect and a profound creative power, is the product of tens of thousands of years. The sequencing of the Minoan genome from Crete shows, for the first time, that the Minoans were of Nordic racial heritage and that is undeniable. More importantly, it shows that Nordic peoples had contact with the Mediterranean world in ancient times, a fact that has been suppressed by academia and the Jewish Marxist establishment for well over a century. That is a significant find, as it opens the doors for further research that will undoubtedly reveal that many of the civilizations of our ancient past, thought to be indigenous or the by-product of non-whites, were not only white in origin, but born from Aryan-speaking Nordic invaders. It now seems that the White race itself is the proverbial spark that started all human effort and civilization.

Genes responsible for diversity of human skin colors identified

The human race began in Europe, some moved to africa and lost their IQ and turned tar colored

“If you were to shave a chimp, it has light pigmentation,” Tishkoff said, “so it makes sense that skin color in the ancestors of modern humans could have been relatively light. It is likely that when we lost the hair covering our bodies and moved from forests to the open savannah, we needed darker skin.

Date:
October 12, 2017
Source:
University of Pennsylvania
Summary:
A study of diverse African groups by geneticists has identified new genetic variants associated with skin pigmentation. The findings help explain the vast range of skin color on the African continent, shed light on human evolution and inform an understanding of the genetic risk factors for conditions such as skin cancer.
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FULL STORY

This is a Mursi woman of Nilo-Saharan ancestry. Nilo-Saharan pastoralist populations possess some of the darkest skin in Africa. Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania found mutations associated with both light and dark pigmentation in a genome-wide association study of diverse African populations.
Credit: Alessia Ranciaro
 

Human populations feature a broad palette of skin tones. But until now, few genes have been shown to contribute to normal variation in skin color, and these had primarily been discovered through studies of European populations.

Now, a study of diverse African groups led by University of Pennsylvania geneticists has identified new genetic variants associated with skin pigmentation. The findings help explain the vast range of skin color on the African continent, shed light on human evolution and inform an understanding of the genetic risk factors for conditions such as skin cancer.

“We have identified new genetic variants that contribute to the genetic basis of one of the most strikingly variable traits in modern humans,” said Sarah Tishkoff, a Penn Integrates Knowledge Professor and the David and Lyn Silfen University Professor in Genetics and Biology with appointments in the Perelman School of Medicine and School of Arts and Sciences. “When people think of skin color in Africa most would think of darker skin, but we show that within Africa there is a huge amount of variation, ranging from skin as light as some Asians to the darkest skin on a global level and everything in between. We identify genetic variants affecting these traits and show that mutations influencing light and dark skin have been around for a long time, since before the origin of modern humans.”

The findings are published in the journal Science. Tishkoff, senior author, collaborated with first author and lab member Nicholas Crawford, a postdoctoral fellow, and a multi-institutional, international team.

Tishkoff has long studied the genetics of African populations, looking at traits such as height, lactose tolerance, bitter-taste sensitivity and high-altitude adaptation. Skin color emerged as a trait of interest from her experience working on the continent and seeing the diversity present across groups.

“Skin color is a classic variable trait in humans, and it’s thought to be adaptive,” Tishkoff said. “Analysis of the genetic basis of variation in skin color sheds light on how adaptive traits evolve, including those that play a role in disease risk.”

Both light and dark skin pigmentations confer benefits: Darker skin, for example, is believed to help prevent some of the negative impacts of ultraviolet light exposure, while lighter skin is better able to promote synthesis of vitamin D in regions with low ultraviolet light exposure.

To objectively capture the range of skin pigmentation in Africa, Tishkoff and colleagues used a color meter to measure the light reflectance of the skin of more than 2,000 Africans from ethnically and genetically diverse populations. They took the measurement from the inner arm, when sun exposure is minimal. The measurements can be used to infer levels of the skin pigment melanin. They obtained a range of measurements; the darkest skin was observed in Nilo-Saharan pastoralist populations in eastern Africa, and the lightest skin was observed in San hunter-gatherer populations in southern Africa.

The researchers obtained genetic information from nearly 1,600 people, examining more than 4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome, places where the DNA code may differ by one “letter.” From this dataset the researchers were able to do a genome-wide association study and found four key areas of the genome where variation closely correlated with skin color differences.

The region with the strongest associations was in and around the SLC24A5 gene, one variant of which is known to play a role in light skin color in European and some southern Asian populations and is believed to have arisen more than 30,000 years ago. This variant was common in populations in Ethiopia and Tanzania that were known to have ancestry from southeast Asia and the Middle East, suggesting it was carried into Africa from those regions and, based on its frequency, may have been positively selected.

Another region, which contains the MFSD12 gene, had the second strongest association to skin pigmentation. This gene is expressed at low levels in depigmented skin in individuals with vitiligo, a condition where the skin loses pigment in some areas.

“I still rememeber the ‘ah ha!’ moment when we saw this gene was associated with vitiligo,” said Crawford. “That’s when we knew we’d found something new and exciting.”

The team found that mutations in and around this gene that were associated with dark pigmentation were present at high frequencies in populations of Nilo-Saharan ancestry, who tend to have very dark skin, as well as across sub-Saharan populations, except the San, who tend to have lighter skin. They also identified these variants, as well as others associated with dark skin pigmentation, in South Asian Indian and Australo-Melanesian populations, who tend to have the darkest skin coloration outside of Africa.

“The origin of traits such as hair texture, skin color and stature, which are shared between some indigenous populations in Melanesia and Australia and some sub-Saharan Africans, has long been a mystery.” Tishkoff said. “Some have argued it’s because of convergent evolution, that they independently evolved these mutations, but our study finds that, at genes associated with skin color, they have the identical variants associated with dark skin as Africans.

“Our data are consistent with a proposed early migration event of modern humans out of Africa along the southern coast of Asia and into Australo-Melanesia and a secondary migration event into other regions. However, it is also possible that there was a single African source population that contained genetic variants associated with both light and dark skin and that the variants associated with dark pigmentation were maintained only in South Asians and Australo-Melanesians and lost in other Eurasians due to natural selection.”

Also of interest was that genetic variants at MFSD12, OCA2, and HERC2 associated with light skin pigmentation were at highest frequency in the African San population, which has the oldest genetic lineages in the world, as well as in Europeans.

MFSD12 is highly expressed in melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin. To verify the gene’s role in contributing to skin pigmentation, the researchers blocked expression of the gene in cells in culture and found an increase in production of eumelanin, the pigment type responsible for black and brown skin, hair and eye color. Knocking out the gene in zebrafish caused a loss of cells that produce yellow pigment. And in mice, knocking out the gene changed the color of their coat from agouti, caused by hairs with a red and yellow pigment, to a uniform gray by eliminating production of pheomelanin, a type of pigment also found in humans.

“Apart from one study showing that MFSD12 was associated with vitiligo lesions, we didn’t know much else about it,” said Crawford, “so these functional assays were really crucial.”

“We went beyond most genome-wide association studies to do functional assays,” Tishkoff said, “and found that knocking out MFSD12 dramatically impacted the pigmentation of fish and mice. It’s pointing to this being a very conserved trait across species.

“We don’t know exactly why, but blocking this gene causes a loss of pheomelanin production and an increase in eumelanin production,” Tishkoff added. “We also showed that Africans have a lower level of MFSD12 expression, which makes sense, as low levels of the gene means more eumelanin production.”

A collaborator on the work, Michael Marks, a professor in the departments of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine and of Physiology at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and at Penn Medicine, demonstrated that the MFSD12 gene influences eumelanin pigmentation in a novel manner. Unlike other pigmentation genes, which are expressed mainly in melanosomes, the organelle where melanin is produced, MFSD12 is expressed in lysosomes, a distinct organelle from the melanosomes that produce eumelanin.

“Our results suggest there must be some kind of as-yet-uncharacterized form of cross-talk between lysosomes and the melanosomes that make eumelanins,” Marks said. “Figuring out how this works might provide new ideas for ways to manipulate skin pigmentation for therapeutic means.

“In addition,” Marks said, “the fact that loss of MFSD12 expression had opposite effects on the two types of melanins, increasing eumelanin production while suppressing pheomelanin, suggests that melanosomes that make pheomelanins might be more related to lysosomes than those that make eumelanin.”

Additional associations with skin color were found in the OCA2 and HERC2 genes, which have been linked with skin, eye and hair color variation in Europeans, though the mutations identified are novel. Mutations in OCA2 also cause a form of albinism that is more common in Africans than in other populations. The researchers observed genetic variants in a neighboring gene, HERC2, which regulates the expression of OCA2. Within OCA2, they identified a variant common in Europeans and San that is associated with a shorter version of the protein, with an altered function. They observed a signal of balancing selection of OCA2, meaning that two different versions of the gene have been maintained, in this case for more than 600,000 years.

“What this tells us,” Tishkoff said, “is there is likely some selective force maintaining these two alleles. It is likely that this gene is playing a role in other aspects of human physiology which are important.”

A final genetic region the researchers found to be associated with skin pigmentation included genes that play a role in ultraviolet light response and melanoma risk. The top candidate gene in the region is DDB1, involved in repairing DNA after exposure to UV light.

“Africans don’t get melanoma very often,” Tishkoff said. “The variants near these genes are highest in populations who live in areas of the highest ultraviolet light intensity, so it makes sense that they may be playing a role in UV protection.”

The mutations identified by the team play a role in regulating expression of DDB1 and other nearby genes.

“Though we don’t yet know the mechanism by which DDB1 is impacting pigmentation, it is of interest to note that this gene, which is highly conserved across species, also plays a role in pigmentation in plants such as tomatoes,” said Tishkoff.

The team saw evidence that this region of the genome has been a strong target of natural selection outside of Africa; mutations associated with light skin color swept to nearly 100 percent frequency in non-Africans, one of few examples of a “selective sweep” in all Eurasians; the age of the selective sweep was estimated to be around 60,000 to 80,000 years old, around the time of migration of modern humans out of Africa.

One additional takeaway from this work is a broader picture of the evolution of skin color in humans. Most of the genetic variants associated with light and dark pigmentation from the study appear to have originated more than 300,000 years ago, and some emerged roughly 1 million years ago, well before the emergence of modern humans. The older version of these variants in many cases was the one associated with lighter skin, suggesting that perhaps the ancestral state of humans was moderately pigmented rather than darkly pigmented skin.

“If you were to shave a chimp, it has light pigmentation,” Tishkoff said, “so it makes sense that skin color in the ancestors of modern humans could have been relatively light. It is likely that when we lost the hair covering our bodies and moved from forests to the open savannah, we needed darker skin. Mutations influencing both light and dark skin have continued to evolve in humans, even within the past few thousand years.”

Tishkoff noted that the work underscores the diversity of African populations and the lack of support for biological notions of race.

“Many of the genes and new genetic variants we identified to be associated with skin color may never have been found outside of Africa, because they are not as highly variable,” Tishkoff said. “There is so much diversity in Africa that’s not often appreciated. There’s no such thing as an African race. We show that skin color is extremely variable on the African continent and that it is still evolving. Further, in most cases the genetic variants associated with light skin arose in Africa.”

Why the Alt-Right Will Win

WotW looks at the latest attempted hit-piece against the alt-right and why we mustn’t lose heart. Please support this channel at: https://www.patreon.com/wayoftheworld or by using the PayPal

Trump Endorses the Bad Guy in Alabama Senate Race

Andrew Anglin
Daily Stormer
September 22, 2017

Just check the physiognomy and tell me which one is the good guy.

Trump is just doing everything wrong now.

This is a very clear-cut good guy v. bad guy situation we have here. No room for confusion.

One guy supports Trumpism and the other supports mainstream cuckism. So Trump endorses the cuckist.

Even though the Trumpist is winning.

Fox News:

The two Republicans competing in Alabama’s upcoming Senate runoff sparred over President Trump’s endorsement in the race of the establishment-favored incumbent over the Christian-conservative outsider, one night before the president’s planned visit to the state.

During a televised debate in Montgomery on Thursday evening, appointed incumbent Sen. Luther Strange repeatedly boasted that the president, who is traveling to Alabama on Friday to boost support for his campaign, endorsed him over his opponent.

His name is even “Strange.” Like Hugo Strange.

How much more obvious…?

“I know you may get tired of hearing this — and you may resent that the president is my friend and is supporting me in this race — but I think it’s a good thing that the president of the United States has a personal relationship with the junior senator from Alabama,” Strange told his rival, former Alabama Supreme Court Justice Roy Moore.

Despite Trump’s endorsement, some of the president’s usual allies, including former senior adviser Steve Bannon, are supporting Moore. Former Alaska Gov. Sarah Palin headlined a post-debate rally for Moore after the debate.

Moore has been polling ahead of Strange, who is favored by Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell. The runoff takes place Tuesday.

Yes, the same Mitch McConnell who is a cuck master. The man who has to skip Senate sessions because he’s too tired from staying up all night watching his wife have sex with entire teams of black men.

The nemesis of Trump. Or he was.

During Thursday’s debate, Moore questioned Trump’s endorsement of Strange and mocked his opponent for continuously bringing up the endorsement throughout the night.

“I can’t tell you what the president thinks,” Moore said. “I can’t tell you every move he makes, when he goes to the bathroom, when he doesn’t – like my opponent.”

Moore and Strange finished atop a crowded field in the initial August vote for the seat once held by Attorney General Jeff Sessions.

Moore, the “Ten Commandments judge” beloved by his Christian conservative supporters, is famous for having been removed twice from his position on Alabama’s Supreme Court.

On Thursday, Moore said he wanted to see “virtue and morality returned to our country” as he railed against “transgender troops in our bathrooms.”

Yes.

This is the kind of people we need.

The kind that hate faggots.

If someone is a real faggot hater, you know he’s good on other issues. (Except maybe Israel – but that is getting better.)

He even rides a horse instead of driving a car.

But seriously – Moore is a good guy. Whenever you hear the word “outsider,” you can pretty much bet it’s a good guy.

“Our foundation has been shaken. Crime, corruption, immorality, abortion, sodomy, sexual perversion sweep our land,” he said. “When we become one nation under God again, when liberty and justice for all reigns across our land, we will be truly good again.”

Exactly.

Unlike Mitch “One Nation Under Black Gang-Bangs with My Wife” McConnell.

Strange, the former attorney general in Alabama, was temporarily appointed to the seat in April after Sessions joined the Trump administration.

Moore hit Strange, a former state attorney general, for his past career as a lobbyist.

Moore said Trump was right to campaign against lobbyists during the presidential race, so it didn’t make sense that he’d back Strange.

Yes, welcome to the new reality, where nothing Trump does makes sense anymore.

“You don’t get rid of lobbyists in the swamp by sending them to the United States Senate,” Moore said. “This is pure hypocrisy in this race.”

For his part, Strange used every opportunity during the debate to discuss his relationship with Trump.

“The president supports me,” Strange said. “If you have not followed the president on Twitter, I urge you to do so. He just tweeted a great tweet out about his enthusiastic support for me and my campaign.”

This is sickening.

Trump needs to back our people. Not strange people – PUN INTENDED.

I was hoping that in 2018, Trump would be supporting outsiders in primaries against these rats. But if this is a foreshadowing – and it is – than that will not be so.

Meaning we’re just going to have to do it ourselves.

As I have announced, we are all running in 2018.

Get ready for that.

Lake Superior Mines, Old Copper Culture and Copper Shipments to Europe during the Bronze Age.

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis
 http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/lake-superior-mines-old-copper-culture.html

Great Lakes Copper Mining in Ancient Times and the Old Copper Culture Below are examples of the forms native copper comes in at the lodes at the Upper Pennisula of Michigan. Because of the copper’s purity, it can be traced chemically to Europe in the Bronze age and even to the Middle East when it turns up in Old World archaeological sites.

3 ton copper nugget, Lake Superior

Teresa Drusin sent me a message about the copper mines in the Lake Superior area on February 6. It included the information:

Dating Problem
Carbon Dating of the Ancient Mines of Lake superior (Kitchi-Gummi) are much older than would be expected.
Ten such dates run from 2470 BC to 1050 BC.
No developed cultures were here to use the copper. In addition the copper is missing.
Carbon Dates from Isle Royale
Minong Site Copper Mine 2470 BC and 2450 BC.
Lookout Site Copper Mine 2460 BC.
Minong Site Copper Mine 1850 BC, 1510 BC, 1410 BC, 1370 BC, 1360 BC, and 1050 BC.
Siskiwit Site Copper Mine 1420 BC

To which I replied:
On Mon, Feb 6, 2012 at 7:16 PM, Dale Drinnon wrote:

But there WERE copper artifacts all over the area and dating MUCH further back than the quoted C14 dates on these coppermines. Furthermore the page you listed cites some nonstandard dates for some other things otherwise.
The Old Copper Culture begins sometime before 4000 BC and hence is on a par with Megalithic Europe and most parts of the Near East, and they were making tools of much the same design as Bronze Age Europe at the same time-
” Archaeologists do know that widespread trading must have taken place because items such as marine shells from the southern Gulf Coast are found at Archaic sites.” at the last one.
Best Wishes, Dale D.

To which Teresa replied: “hhhhmmmm…. the plot thickens. so why aren’t we reading more bout this sort of things. Well we are, but why isn’t this making more mainstream news I wonder?”

And then I came back with: “Denial ain’t just a river in Egypt, ya know.”

An obituary for Fred Rydholm that appeared in April of 2009 happened to mention some of the basic circumstances regarding the Lake Superior copper and it is worth quoting here:

About a year and a half ago, Fred sent me an autographed copy of his book, “Michigan Copper: The Untold Story,” without which I could not have written The Copper Trail portion of a program presented at the Ancient Artifact Preservation Society’s annual convention in Marquette last fall. He enclosed a handwritten note basically saying he felt that I was the most qualified person to write The Copper Trail. Actually, Fred was the most qualified person — no one else could come close to his knowledge about the vast amounts of pure natural copper in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula and the history of its mining. But I’ll take the compliment, and thanks to my fellow researcher Myron Paine of Martinez, Calif., who apparently put a bug in Fred’s ear about whatever writing abilities I possess.
The Copper Trail is part of a chain of evidence presented at the conference stating that oceans were not barriers in ancient times, but were moving highways — allowing many peoples from many places to travel to the land that now is the Americas at many times before Christopher Columbus “discovered” it Many of those seafarers came to what is now known as Michigan, to gather and transport native copper back to their home countries, fueling the world’s Bronze Age. Bronze is 90 percent copper alloyed with 10 percent tin. Michigan has more than 5,000 ancient copper mining pits, some as deep as 30 feet and all so old they were filled almost to ground level with decayed vegetable matter and wind-blown soil when they were discovered in the mid-1850s. Thousands upon thousands of stone hammers (used to batter pieces small enough to carry, from big, heated copper nuggets) were found in and around the mining pits. The story of Michigan’s copper is not taught in our public schools today, but thanks to Fred more than anyone else, it will be in the future — and it certainly should be. It’s a fascinating story and part of our nation’s early history.
Fred was the catalyst behind the formation of the Ancient American Artifact Preservation Society and the first to have the idea for a planned museum to promote knowledge of the copper country and diffusionism. (Diffusionists believe the opposite of the traditional view of history, which teaches that Columbus and a few Norse were the first Europeans to reach the Americas, other than ancestors of American Indians who are said to have walked across the Bering land bridge which existed in the distant past. To read more about Fred, learn about the upcoming Conference on Ancient Copper or the 5th Annual AAPS Conference on Ancient America or buy “Michigan Copper: The Untold Story,” visit http://www.aaaps.org and click on the appropriate icons.
Fred proposed to build the museum over huge piece of [glacially-deposited] native float copper which was discovered about 10 years ago. The huge copper nugget weighs an estimated 40 to 70 tons. No one knows how much of the nugget’s copper is underground, so there is no way to properly verify its weight. The AAPS (the word “American” has been dropped since the society’s founding) made a down payment on the nugget and several acres of land a couple of years ago, but still owes about $340,000. The aaaps.org Web site also tells how to make donations to benefit the museum project. After the museum is built, and as word gets out to schools about the copper country and the ancient copper trade, Fred’s influence on the teaching of history will be felt around the world.

Now I should mention that the first time that it was suggested that the European Bronze Age was relying heavily on UP Michigan copper was in 1881. That was by Ignatius Donnelly in Atlantis: the Antediluvian World. Since then the official stance has been to steadfastly ignore any evidence that such a thing was even possible.

Above at left, “Foreign” skull discovered at Lake Superior Copper Mines and at right deformed skull of a child from Spain. Below, comparison of the “Foreign” skull to the Mesolithic Capsian Combe-Capelle skull from Southern France, typical from Spain and North Africa also during the period. The Combe-capelle skeleton is often listed as an Aurignacian type but this is incorrect, recent research has shown that it was an intrusive burial into the older layers and should be dated closer to 8000 BC: the type continued on into later typical “Mediterranean” populations.

The Old Copper Culture lasted from about 4000 BC (or even before)
until about 1000 BC: the Mound (Adena and Hopewell) copper items
seem to be a direct continuation of the same tradition.

It is important that several of the types of tools made by the OCC
are of the types being made in Europe at the same time, and that it
would be EXTREMELY unusual if the people in the New World
independantly invented such a thing as socketed hafting of spears and
celts. But beyond that there is the whole array of European style
tools including little cosmetic spoons and trepanning tools, and some
of the “Spearheads” look a lot like bronze knives and swords being
used in Europe. And just when did shaving become important enough
among Native Americans that you frequently find RAZORS, even exactly
the same type as popular in Europe at the same time?

One of the internet sites I took the photos from was extremely
critical of diffusionist theories about the OCC mining works. I
include a quote below:

“There have been incredible, but totally unsubstantiated, claims made
as to the time and manpower required to create the ancient copper
pits and as to the amount of copper that was actually mined.
Beginning with Drier and Du Temple in 1961 and Mertz in 1967,
through Sodders in 1990, figures of .5 to 1.5 billion pounds (yes
billion, not million) have been put forth. Sodders postulates “it is
believed that as many as 10,000 miners, labored some 1,000 years, in
an estimated 10,000 Copper Range pits”. Drier and Du Temple get to
their figures with the following assumptions in their 1961
work “Prehistoric Copper Mining in the Lake Superior Region”: “If one
assumes that an average pit is 20 feet in diameter and 30 feet deep,
then it appears that something like 1000 to 1200 tons of ore were
removed per pit. If the ore averaged 5% or 100 pounds per ton then
approximately 100,000 pounds of copper were removed per pit. If 5000
pits existed, as earlier estimates indicated (and all are copper
bearing), then 100,000 pounds per pit in 5000 pits means that
500,000,000 pounds of copper were mined in prehistoric times- all of
it without anything more than fire, stone hammers and manpower. If
the ore averaged 15% copper and if more than 5000 pits existed, then
over 1.5 billion pounds of copper were mined”.

One has to ask the obvious question, where did all this mined copper
go? Some scholars would have us believe that the vast majority was
taken by Phoenicians, Berbers, Minoans, Bronze Age Europeans or
Vikings in a huge international copper trade centering in the Lake
Superior Region. Where is the archeological evidence to support these
theories? The truth is that it does not exist. There are no
identified community or camp sites, no burial remains, and no
identifiable artifacts to support any of these theories. All of this
evidence does exist to demonstrate that the indigenous peoples were,
in fact, the ones who mined the copper and fashioned it into
implements, weapons and ornaments”

I need not point out that no evidence exists for the presumptive
Native American encampments either. And the holes ARE there while the
copper IS gone now. I think it goes without saying that Lake Superior copper
was used in the European Bronze age, there have been chemical analysis results
that support that idea as quoted by the AAAPF and other organizations. It is the
reason that Barry Fell underttok the writing of Bronze Age America.

And furthermore the forms of the copper objects that were manufactured by the Old Copper Culture match their old-world analogues (also specified by Barry Fell). Any of them could be taken to be artifacts of an introduced culture. What eventually happened in America was that they eventually ceased to have a utilitarian use and value and were used solely as elite trade items. Or for their monetary value and the status they conferred, to put it another way.

OCC tools and ornaments are scattered over a wide area besides around the Great Lakes in the USA: I know of several finds in Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky and even as far away as Maryland. These are assumed to have been trade goods. They are also found in Canada as far as Lake Winnepeg.

Locations of some Old Copper Culture artifact collections:

Wisconsin State Historical Society in Madison
Chicago Field Museum
Neville Public Museum in Green Bay
American Museum of Natural History in Washington D.C.
Pennsylvania University Museum in Philadelphia

Boats such as were used by the builders of stonehenge to move large blocks of stone over hundreds of miles.
Presumably for very heavy loads, two or more of these were lashed together side by side like outriggers.

Those Isle Royale copper miners had to go out in notoriously rough waters, repeatedly, and with mega-tons of that copper they had been digging out. They WEREN’T doing that in little birch-bark canoes. Viking longboats or their earlier forerunners would be more like it. They HAD to have been pretty rough sea-faring types to get through with the cargo. Which we know they did, because the copper they shipped out turns up everywhere.
Incidentally, not only is Lake Superior the largest of the Great Lakes, it contains enough water to make up all of the other Great Lakes, plus enough left over for several more Lake Eires.

Late Bronze Age Merchant Ship
Copper Token, possibly representative for 1 fullsized “Oxhide” ingot
Such as commonly used in shipping during the Bronze Age (Below)
Chemical analysis of certain European Bronze Age goods demonstrates that the copper in them came from America, and specifically from the Great Lakes region. And that is a fact that has been confirmed several times by different evaluations on different samples and has been known for a long time: over a century to be precise. It has simply been denied by the communist in academia as it conflicts with their agenda to use white guilt to genocide whites.