Its Official Stone-age Europeans ‘were the first to set foot on North America’ 19,000 to 26,000 years ago! – Archaeologists Find Pre-Clovis Projectile Points in Texas

Despite general resistance, representatives of tribes in the US recently gave their blessing for DNA analysis of the remains of a Stone Age child. Research conducted on the boy’s genes indicate that Native Americans have European roots.

Stone-age Europeans ‘were the first to set foot on North America’

Stone-age Europeans were the first to set foot on North America, beating American Indians by some 10,000 years, new archaeological evidence suggests.

In a discovery that could rewrite the history of the Americas, archaeologists have found a number of stone tools dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, and bearing remarkable similarities to those made in Europe.

All of the ancient implements were discovered along the north-east coast of the USA.

The tools could reassert the long dismissed and discredited claim that Europeans in the form of Christopher Columbus and his crew were the first to discover the New World.

Previous discoveries of tools have only been dated back to 15,000 years ago and prompted many archaeologists and historians to question claims that stone-age man managed to migrate to North America.

But the striking resemblance in the way the primitive American tools were made to European ones dating from the same period now suggests a remarkable migration took place.

Adding to the weight of evidence is fresh analysis of stone knife unearthed in the US in 1971 that revealed it was made of French flint.

Professor Dennis Stanford from Washington’s Smithsonian Institution, and Professor Bruce Bradley from Exeter University believe that the ancient Europeans travelled to North America across an Atlantic frozen over by the Ice Age.

During the height of the Ice Age, ice covered some three million square miles of the North Atlantic, providing a solid bridge between the two continents. Plentiful numbers of seal, penguins, seabirds and the now extinct great auk on the edge of the ice shelf could have provided the stone-age nomads with enough food to sustain them on their 1,500-mile walk.

Once again, the so-called “extremists” were right. In a discovery that could rewrite the history of the Americas, archaeologists have found a number of stone tools dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, and bearing remarkable similarities to those made in Europe. All of the ancient implements were discovered along the north-east coast of the USA. The tools could reassert the long dismissed and discredited claim that Europeans in the form of Christopher Columbus and his crew were the first to discover the New World. Previous discoveries of tools have only been dated back to 15,000 years ago and prompted many archaeologists and historians to question claims that stone-age man managed to migrate to North America. But the striking resemblance in the way the primitive American tools were made to European ones dating from the same period now suggests a remarkable migration took place.

At the Gault archaeological site in central Texas, archaeologists have unearthed a projectile point technology never previously seen in North America, which they date to be 16,000-20,000 years old. The findings, published in the journal Science Advances, suggest humans occupied the North American continent prior to Clovis — considered the first culture to use projectile points to hunt on the continent, and dated to around 11,000 years ago.

Stone tool assemblage recovered from the Gault site, Texas: (A to D, F, and L) bifaces; (E) blade core; (G) quartz projectile point; (H and I) projectile points; (K) projectile point tip; (M, V, and W) blade; (N) unifacial tool; (O and T) gravers; (P) discoidal biface; (Q) end scraper; (R to U) modified flake tools; (X and Y) lanceolate projectile points. Image credit: N. Velchoff / Gault School of Archaeological Research.

Stone tool assemblage recovered from the Gault site, Texas: (A to D, F, and L) bifaces; (E) blade core; (G) quartz projectile point; (H and I) projectile points; (K) projectile point tip; (M, V, and W) blade; (N) unifacial tool; (O and T) gravers; (P) discoidal biface; (Q) end scraper; (R to U) modified flake tools; (X and Y) lanceolate projectile points. Image credit: N. Velchoff / Gault School of Archaeological Research.

For decades, scientists believed the Western Hemisphere was settled by humans roughly 13,500 years ago, a theory based largely upon the widespread distribution of Clovis artifacts dated to that time.

In recent years, though, archaeological evidence has increasingly called into question the idea of ‘Clovis First.’

Now, Texas State University researcher Thomas Williams and colleagues, working at the Gault site northwest of Austin, has dated a significant assemblage of stone artifacts to 16,000-20,000 years of age, pushing back the timeline of the first human inhabitants of North America far before Clovis.

“Clovis artifacts are distinctive prehistoric stone tools so named because they were initially found near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s but have since been identified throughout North and South America,” Dr. Williams said.

“The Gault projectile points are unique. We haven’t found anything else like them.”

“Combine that with the ages and the fact that it underlies a Clovis component and the Gault site provides a fantastic opportunity to study the earliest human occupants in the Americas.”

The presence of Clovis technology at the Gault site is well-documented.

Excavations below the Clovis deposits revealed well-stratified sediments containing artifacts — called Gault Assemblage — distinctly different from Clovis.

The finds include small projectile point technology, biface stone tools, blade-and-core tools, and flake tools.

Dr. Williams and co-authors compared Gault artifacts to Clovis tools and found that the blade-and-core traditions, in particular, are similar to Clovis blade-and-cores (meaning they continued into the time of Clovis), but biface traditions underwent significant changes in the Clovis level.

Ancient Americans were Europeans.

“Meanwhile, the early projectile point technology is ‘unrelated’ to Clovis at all,” they noted.

Based on optically stimulated luminescence dating, the Gault Assemblage sediment samples are approximately 16,000-20,000 years old.

“The Gault site, which encompasses a valley at the intersection of the Edwards Plateau and Blackland Prairie, would have had great appeal to early human arrivals,” the researchers said.

“Reliable springs provided ample water for both humans and wild game during drought, and high-quality chert (flint) outcroppings were valuable for use in crafting tools and projectile points.”

“Significantly, the Gault site excavation provides evidence pushing back earliest human habitation of North America by at least 2,500 years,” they said.

“Within a wider context, this evidence suggests that Clovis technology spread across an already well-established, indigenous population.”

_____

Thomas J. Williams et al. 2018. Evidence of an early projectile point technology in North America at the Gault Site, Texas, USA. Science Advances 4 (7): eaar5954; doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aar5954

Europeans Have been traveling to North America for tens of thousands of years, History is far more complex than we are led to believe.

America May Have Been Discovered By Stone Age Hunters from Europe 17,000 Years Ago

There are many arguments over which  humans discovered America first, but typically they really mean which group of people discovered a North America already populated by Native Americans. There is another level of debate, this one about the first human settlements that arrived in America thousands of years ago, during the Ice Age. Known as the Solutrean hypothesis, this theory was proposed in 1998 by Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian Institution and Bruce Bradley from University of Exeter. They believe that Europeans were the original settlers in the Americas.

This theory of settlement contradicts the long-held position that the continent was originally populated by Asian peoples, who accessed America by way of a land bridge near the Bering straights or on the Pacific coast. Now researchers are concluding that such travel in the Alaska region may not have been possible. And new evidence is indicating that the Solutrean hypothesis may be right after all.

The Solutrean culture existed 21,000 to 17,000 years ago, during the Ice Age. These hunters lived in Europe and may have migrated to North America by boat as they followed the pack ice of the north Atlantic Ocean. The ocean was frozen for thousands of years. The hypothesis began with discovery of Clovis technology in the Americas.

If correct, then Europeans discovered America 10,000 years before the Siberian-originating people who evolved into the Native Americans arrived on the continent.

Archeologists have made a startling array of discoveries of stone tools that were made in the European style of the time. These tools date to 19,000 to 26,000 years, and were found at six different places along the American coast. One site was established in Pennsylvania and a second in virginia. Dr Darrin Lowery of the University of Delaware found three sites on the Delmarva Peninsula in Maryland. The sixth site is on the seabed 60 miles out from the Virginia coast. It was discovered by scallop fisherman who were dredging in the area.

These deceptively simple tools and discoveries have turned out to be the biggest archeological finds in decades, with the potential to upend everything we knew about the way humans spread throughout the world.

Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History Department of Anthropology crurator Dr. Dennis Stanford sitting in front of several Clovis Points

The first group of stone age tools were discovered about 15,000 years ago, a long time after Stone Age Europeans called Solutreans from France and Iberia had already stopped making the tools. So although the tools were similar in type, archeologists rejected a connection between the US and Europe.

Now older tools have been discovered that date to between 26,000 and 19,000 years ago, which makes them contemporary with the western European tools that are almost identical.

In addition, a chemical analysis of a Solutrean-style stone knife found in Virginia in 1971 proved to be made from French flint.

Professor Stanford and Professor Bruce Bradley say the discoveries support their hypothesis that that Stone Age people from Western Europe came to North America in the  midst of the Ice Age. They believe people walked and/or traveled by boat as they followed the edge of the frozen Atlantic. Hunters at the time would have subsisted by hunting seal and other life that survived the harsh conditions. The professors have written a new book – Across Atlantic Ice – which is available now.

At the height of the Ice Age, there were three million square miles of ice in the North Atlantic. The ice lasted for most of the year and sometimes all year. The seasonally shifting zone provided good opportunities for game and fish, however, especially in the places where the ice ended and the open ocean began. Hunters of the era would have access to sea birds, fish, migrating seals and some now-extinct species such as the great auk, a penguin-like sea bird.

Skeptics didn’t believe that humans from the Stone Age could’ve made the long journey from Europe to America. It was a 1,200 mile trip across treacherous conditions. However, evidence is starting to indicate humans were indeed capable of such a migration.

Archaeologists are beginning digs in six new sites across in Tennessee, Maryland and even Texas, which many believe will produce more evidence in favor of the Solutreans. As Bradley and Stanford point out, the predominant theory of Siberian migration fails because there is no evidence of human activity in north-east Siberia or Alaska up to about 15,500 years ago. No tools or other material from Asia has been discovered to from before 19,000 years ago.

If the Solutrean European hypothesis is correct, it means that the Stone Age humans managed to make the transition in a relatively narrow window of just 4,500 years. Asian-originating Indians who are believed to have entered the Americas by accessing the Bering Straits or along the Aleutian Islands chain would’ve had 15,000 years to make the move. Most of the 15,000 year period provided for a much better climate to migrate, and would theoretically sustain more migration by a larger number of people.

It is therefore possible that the Solutrean Native Americans had actually been absorbed or eradicated by the Siberian Natives.

Genetic markers are providing more evidence to support the Solutreans. Genetic markers for Stone Age Europeans is found in small quantities in American Indian DNA. Tests on DNA extracted from 8000 year old skeletons which were discovered in Florida contain a high level of genetic markers pointing to Europeans. Among more isolated Native American groups whose languages seem totally unrelated to Asian-originating American  Indian people.

There are still great archeological finds to come, since most evidence from the Stone Age scene is buried under the ocean. After the ice melted, the rising waterways submerged up to 100 miles of land, which is now under the water. So far one underwater site has been discovered because of the scallop fishermen. This summer it will be excavated, although it is unknown whether researchers will deploy mini submarines with cameras and arms, or send deep divers to the ocean floor.

http://igcritic.com/culture/facts/america-may-have-been-discovered-by-stone-age-hunters-from-europe-17000-years-ago/

Stone-age Europeans were the first to set foot on North America, beating American Indians by some 10,000 years, new archaeological evidence suggests.

by Matthew Day

In a discovery that could rewrite the history of the Americas, archaeologists have found a number of stone tools dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, and bearing remarkable similarities to those made in Europe.

All of the ancient implements were discovered along the north-east coast of the USA.

The tools could reassert the long dismissed and discredited claim that Europeans in the form of Christopher Columbus and his crew were the first to discover the New World.

Previous discoveries of tools have only been dated back to 15,000 years ago and prompted many archaeologists and historians to question claims that stone-age man managed to migrate to North America.

But the striking resemblance in the way the primitive American tools were made to European ones dating from the same period now suggests a remarkable migration took place.

Adding to the weight of evidence is fresh analysis of stone knife unearthed in the US in 1971 that revealed it was made of French flint.

Professor Dennis Stanford from Washington’s Smithsonian Institution, and Professor Bruce Bradley from Exeter University believe that the ancient Europeans travelled to North America across an Atlantic frozen over by the Ice Age.

During the height of the Ice Age, ice covered some three million square miles of the North Atlantic, providing a solid bridge between the two continents. Plentiful numbers of seal, penguins, seabirds and the now extinct great auk on the edge of the ice shelf could have provided the stone-age nomads with enough food to sustain them on their 1,500-mile walk.

“Across Atlantic Ice”, a book by professors Stanford and Bradley presenting the case for the trans-Atlantic trek, is to be published soon.

Source

Researchers Shows: Humans Did Not Evolve From a Single Population in Africa, and Stone tools 2.1 million years old unearthed in China

Rewriting the story of humanity’s origins: Fossil records suggest our ancestors evolved right across Africa and not just in one region

  • Experts found humans were not fully formed when they spread across the world
  • Primitive skulls and bones of homo sapiens do not show a linear progression 
  • Instead the development is much more patchy from primitive to modern  
  • It took hundreds of thousands of years before all humans began to look as we do 

A new study says the fossil record does not support humans being fully formed when they spread across the world. Left: African skull from around 300,000 years ago Right: Skull from the Levant dating from around 95,000 years ago

Primitive skulls and bones of homo sapiens do not show a linear progression from primitive to modern.

Instead the development is much more patchy – showing that it took hundreds of thousands of years before all humans began to look as we do today.

Studies of the DNA of modern day Africans – the most genetically diverse continent on Earth – paints a similar picture.

It shows human populations across the continent are so different they must have been separated for huge chunks of time.

Scientists now suggest there must have been, multiple areas where different groups of humans developed different physical features.

These early bands of early humans then interbred over millennia. Only then did modern humans as we know them develop.

The fossil record suggests early homo sapiens were a patchwork quilt of different groups.

Dr Eleanor Scerri, an archaeologist at Oxford University, who led the international research, told The Guardian: ‘This single origin, single population view has stuck in people’s mind … but the way we’ve been thinking about it is too simplistic.’

The spread of humans led to local adaptation and development of unique primitive technologies. This image shows Middle Stone Age cultural artefacts from northern and southern Africa

The spread of humans led to local adaptation and development of unique primitive technologies. This image shows Middle Stone Age cultural artefacts from northern and southern Africa

Modern humans have small, slender faces, large round braincases, and chins.

If these features only evolved in one group of humans, we might expect to see a series of skulls going from larger to smaller faces, and gradually bigger, rounder braincases.

The fossil picture is much more complicated.

For example, skulls dating to 300,000 years ago found at Jebel Irhoud in Morocco – have small faces like modern humans.

But instead of a spherical braincase, theirs is long and elongated.

Meanwhile early human fossils dating more recently to 160,000 years ago – at Herto in Ethiopia – had big ‘robust’ faces – unlike us – but with ‘globular’ braincases like ours.

Professor Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum and Dr Scerri have put forward the case in the journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

The authors said early humans were largely kept apart by a combination of diverse habitats and shifting environmental boundaries, such as forests and deserts.

Many of the most inhospitable regions in Africa today, such as the Sahara, were once wet and green, with interwoven networks of lakes and rivers, and abundant wildlife.

Designers used the fossils to recreate what they think the first Homo sapiens across Africa looked like 300,000 years ago. But the new research suggests early humans had a huge variation in the sizes and shapes of their heads

Designers used the fossils to recreate what they think the first Homo sapiens across Africa looked like 300,000 years ago. But the new research suggests early humans had a huge variation in the sizes and shapes of their heads

Similarly, some tropical regions that are humid and green today were once arid.

The shifting nature of these habitable zones meant human populations would have gone through many cycles of isolation.

This led to local adaptation and the development of unique primitive technologies – stone tools – and genetic makeup.

Professor Stringer pioneered the idea one big human population developed in Africa and spread worldwide – but now concedes this does not fit the facts.

He said when we look at human bones over the last 300,000 years ‘we see a complex mix of archaic and modern features in different places and at different times.

‘We do see a continental-wide trend towards the modern human form, but some archaic features are present until remarkably recently.’

When it comes to the development of stone tools, the pattern is also mixed.

Sometimes sophisticated tools appear further back in the fossil record, while cruder ones appear more recently – suggesting innovations occurred at different spots on the map at different times.

Prof Chris Stringer added: ‘Although I am one of the researchers who originally helped to develop the view that our species, Homo sapiens, had originated in Africa, I have increasingly come to the realisation that our African origin was a complex process.

‘The great diversity of African fossils between 200,000 and 400,000 years ago suggests that multiple lineages existed on the African continent at that time.’

This artist's impression shows the patchwork of diverse fossils, artefacts and environments across Africa indicate that our species emerged from the interactions between a set of interlinked populations living across the continent, whose connectivity changed through time

This artist’s impression shows the patchwork of diverse fossils, artefacts and environments across Africa indicate that our species emerged from the interactions between a set of interlinked populations living across the continent, whose connectivity changed through time

Dr Scerri, said the stone tools discovered across Africa also don’t show a clear progression from crude to sophisticated.

She added that while there ‘is a continental-wide trend’ to greater sophistication over time, she said: ‘this ‘modernization’ clearly doesn’t originate in one region or occur at one time period.’

Professor Mark Thomas said the genetic patterns found in modern day Africans also support the idea.

He said: ‘It is difficult to reconcile the genetic patterns we see in living Africans, and in the DNA extracted from the bones of Africans who lived over the last 10,000 years, with there being one ancestral human population.’

Dr Scerri said: ‘The evolution of human populations in Africa was multi-regional. Our ancestry was multi-ethnic. And the evolution of our material culture was, well, multi-cultural.’

The full findings of the study were published in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT HUMANKIND’S JOURNEY OUT OF AFRICA?

The traditional view

The traditional ‘Out of Africa’ model suggests that modern humans evolved in Africa and then left in a single wave around 60,000 years ago.

The model often holds once modern humans left the continent, a brief period of interbreeding with Neanderthals occurred.

This explains why individuals of European and Asian heritage today still have ancient human DNA.

There are many theories as to what drove the downfall of the Neanderthals.

Experts have suggested that early humans may have carried tropical diseases with them from Africa that wiped out their ape-like cousins.

Others claim that plummeting temperatures due to climate change wiped out the Neanderthals.

The predominant theory is that early humans killed off the Neanderthal through competition for food and habitat.

How the story is changing in light of new research

Recent findings suggest that the ‘Out of Africa’ theory does not tell the full story of our ancestors.

Instead, multiple, smaller movements of humans out of Africa beginning 120,000 years ago were then followed by a major migration 60,000 years ago.

Most of our DNA is made up of this latter group, but the earlier migrations, also known as ‘dispersals’, are still evident.

This explains recent studies of early human remains which have been found in the far reaches of Asia dating back further than 60,000 years.

For example, H. sapiens remains have been found at multiple sites in southern and central China that have been dated to between 70,000 and 120,000 years ago.

Other recent finds show that modern humans reached Southeast Asia and Australia prior to 60,000 years ago.

Based on these studies, humans could not have come in a single wave from Africa around this time, studies have found.

Instead, the origin of man suggests that modern humans developed in multiple regions around the world.

The theory claims that groups of a pre-human ancestors made their way out of Africa and spread across parts of Europe and the Middle East.

From here the species developed into modern humans in several places at once.

The argument is by a new analysis of a 260,000-year-old skull found in Dali County in China’s Shaanxi Province.

The skull suggests that early humans migrated to Asia, where they evolved modern human traits and then moved back to Africa.

By

When it comes to the origins of our species, Homo sapiens, most scholars have accepted that we originated in Africa around 300,000 years ago, likely from a single population.

However, research published in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution has challenged this view, suggesting that our ancestors were scattered across the entire African continent and did not stem from a specific region.

This fractured evolution meant that our species was both physically and culturally diverse right from the very beginning, according to an interdisciplinary group of researchers led by Eleanor Scerri, an archaeologist from the University of Oxford and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

For the study, the team combined approaches from various disciplines, including anthropology, archaeology and genetics, in addition to reconstructing Africa’s past climate, to build a picture of how modern humans have evolved over the last 300,000 years.

They found that not only were Homo sapiens scattered across Africa when we emerged as a species, but these populations were also largely kept apart due to a combination of physical barriers, such as forests and deserts, leading to diversification.

However, these environments often shifted over time, spurring migrations which created some contact opportunities. This may have meant that populations could have gone through cycles of cultural and genetic mixing before becoming isolated again.

This new model of human evolution better explains the available genetic, fossil and archaeological evidence, the researchers said.

For example, this model can explain why human bone fossils from the last 300,000 years vary significantly, with a mix of archaic and modern features appearing in different places and at different times.

“In the fossil record, we see a mosaic-like, continental-wide trend toward the modern human form, and the fact that these features appear at different places at different times tells us that these populations were not well connected,” Scerri, said in a statement.

The archaeological evidence also lends weight to the new hypothesis.

“Stone tools and other artifacts—usually referred to as material culture—have remarkably clustered distributions in space and through time,” Scerri said. “While there is a continental-wide trend toward more sophisticated material culture, this ‘modernization’ clearly doesn’t originate in one region or occur at one time period.”

Evolutionary changes are seen between the skull bones of two different Homo sapiens. New findings suggest that modern humans evolved in populations that were scattered across the African continent. Philipp Gunz, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Evolutionary changes are seen between the skull bones of two different Homo sapiens. New findings suggest that modern humans evolved in populations that were scattered across the African continent. Philipp Gunz, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Finally, the team’s analysis of the available genetic data indicates that the single origin model is insufficient, according to Mark Thomas, a geneticist from University College London and co-author of the study.

“It is difficult to reconcile the genetic patterns we see in living Africans, and in the DNA extracted from the bones of Africans who lived over the last 10,000 years, with there being one ancestral human population,” he said. “We see indications of reduced connectivity very deep in the past, some very old genetic lineages, and levels of overall diversity that a single population would struggle to maintain.”

The new research highlights how the evolution of modern humans in Africa was a multiregional, multiethnic and multicultural phenomenon, Scerri concluded.

A homo sapiens skull on display at the Sirindhorn Museum of Nature and Science in Thailand. Credit: Shutterstock

Early Humans Probably Didn’t Evolve from a Single Population in Africa

Homo sapiens are incredibly diverse — we live in wildly different societies, follow different rules and love and fear different gods.

Despite that awesome diversity, mounting evidence suggests the first humans were even more different from one another than we are today.

In a new commentary published online on Wednesday (July 11) in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution, an interdisciplinary group that includes geneticists, bioanthropologists, and archaeologists argues that we didn’t evolve from a single population in a single region of Africa, but rather from separate populations across Africa that fully mixed only much later. [Image Gallery: Our Closest Human Ancestor]

Evidence is showing that “human ancestors were already scattered across Africa,” said Eleanor Scerri, a research fellow at Oxford University and lead author of the paper. And the combination of behavioral and physical and cognitive features that define us today started to slowly emerge within the occasional mixing of these different ancestral groups,” she added. (Scerri is also a research associate for the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Germany.)

To draw this conclusion, Scerri and her team not only looked at the available fossil evidence, but also at genetic, archaeological and paleoenvironmental data.

About half a million years ago, Neanderthals and Homo sapiens began to diverge from a common ancestor, according to Scerri. But only around 300,000 years ago did early people actually begin to have features that made them look like humans, she said.

Even then, “all the fossils between 300,000 years ago and about 100,000 years ago don’t really look like anyone living today,” Scerri told Live Science. The features that define us today, such as a small face, prominent chins, a globular skull and small teeth, were indeed present back then, but not all in a single person, she said.

“These features tend to be distributed across the early fossils in different combinations with different, what we call, more primitive or archaic features that we don’t see in anyone living today,” Scerri said. So, someone in Eastern Africa may have had the small teeth, whereas someone in southern Africa may have had a globular skull while the rest of their features remained primitive.

And these groups remained separate for a long time, because the dense forests and deserts in Africa served as formidable barriers, according to Scerri. But with the occasional mixing of different groups, between 100,000 and 40,000 years ago, fossils that combine all the modern features in a single individual begin to appear, Scerri said.

“Which means, of course, that evolution probably progressed at a different speed and tempo in different regions of Africa as different groups came into contact with each other at different times,” Scerri said. Though it’s not clear when most humans on the planet had these modern features, by about 12,000 years ago, when hunting and gathering gradually shifted to agriculture, archaic features such as an elongated head and large robust faces had all but disappeared in humans, Scerri said. (In any case, these archaic features, it should be noted, don’t correspond to how “culturally backward” a culture was, Scerri added.)

Ancient tools also buttress this theory, Scerri said.

For about two million years, hominins made “somewhat crude” handheld tools like hand axes or large cutting tools, Scerri said. About 300,000 years ago, “there’s really an explosion of different and specialized stone tool forms,” she added. These tools, that often used different bindings, different glues, and different designs, took hold in different places across the continent.

“I think there are just a handful of people who are really, really strong proponents of the idea that modern people came from one very restricted region,” said Becky Ackermann, a biological anthropologist at the University of Cape Town in South Africa who was not an author of the commentary. So “I don’t think the conclusions themselves were particularly novel.” [Top 10 Mysteries of the First Humans]

However, “it’s good to see [these ideas] being considered in kind of a holistic way,” she added.

“Who was arguing the contrary?” said Jon Marks, a professor of anthropology at University of North Carolina, Charlotte, who was also not part of the study. Though the findings didn’t come as a shock to Marks, he thinks they point to an important problem in the field — we might be using the wrong metaphors to describe evolution, namely, Darwin’s branching tree.

“What we’re seeing is a tree is not necessarily the most appropriate metaphor to apply to recent human ancestry,” Marks told Live Science. The more appropriate metaphors would be something that branches and then comes back together, rather than branches on a tree, he said.

These could include the roots of a tree, braided streams or capillary systems, he said.

Originally published on Live Science.

 

Stone tools 2.1 million years old unearthed in China suggest human kin left Africa earlier than thought

Stone tools recovered from an excavation in China suggest that our evolutionary forerunners trekked out of Africa earlier than we had thought.

Until now, the oldest evidence of human-like creatures outside Africa came from 1.8-million-year-old artifacts and skulls found in the Georgian town of Dmanisi. The new find pushes that back by at least 250,000 years. There have been other claims of even older fossil discoveries, the study authors said, but those remain unproven.

“There may be older evidence in places like India and Pakistan, but so far … the evidence is not strong enough to convince most of the research community,” said study co-author Robin Dennell of Exeter University in England. “With this type of claim, for an early human presence in a region, the evidence has to be absolutely water-tight and bomb-proof.”

“It’s absolutely a new story,” said archaeologist Michael Petraglia of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, who did not participate in the study. “It means that early humans were getting out of Africa way earlier than we ever realized.”

That exit came long before our own species, Homo sapiens, even appeared. The researchers believe the tools were made by another member of the Homo evolutionary group. “Our discovery means that it is necessary now to reconsider the timing of when early humans left Africa,” Dennell said.

Hominins — humans and their extinct predecessors and relatives — are believed to have emerged in Africa more than 6 million years ago. They are thought to have left the continent in several migration waves starting about 2 million years ago.

The first migrants were likely members of the species Homo erectus (“upright man”) or Homo ergaster (“working man”) — extinct predecessors of Homo sapiens (“wise man”), which first emerged about 300,000 years ago in Africa.

The oldest known African fossil attributed to a member of the Homo family is a 2.8-million-year-old jawbone from Ethiopia.

The items found in China include several chipped rocks, fragments and hammer stones. The 96 artifacts — mainly flakes made with rudimentary hammers, and likely used for cutting meat and other food — were dug up from 17 layers of sediment in an area known as the Loess Plateau, north of the Qinling Mountains, which divide the north and south of China.

The youngest layer where tools were found was 1.26 million years old, and the oldest 2.12 million years, according to the study published in Wednesday’s journal Nature. The layers were used to date the tools, which are of a type known to have been manufactured by Homo species in Africa since at least 3.3 million years ago.

So far, no hominin bones have been found.

The team used paleomagnetism — minerals that show how the Earth’s magnetic field was oriented when they formed — to date the sediment layers, and so the artifacts found within them. The dates of geomagnetic reversals, when north and south flipped, are well known to scientists, and the movements of the magnetic poles and the continents can narrow down a date.

“We were very excited,” said Zhaoyu Zhu, a professor at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, who led the fieldwork. “One of my colleagues suddenly noticed a stone embedded in a steep outcrop. After a short while, more artifacts were found — one after another.”

The tools were distributed throughout layers of dirt, suggesting that our unidentified ancient relatives came back to the same site over and over, possibly following animals to hunt. Researchers also found bones of pigs and deer, but were not able to provide proof that the tools were used for hunting.

Some experts not involved in the research think that the findings need to be considered with caution. “I am skeptical,” said Geoffrey Pope, an anthropologist from William Paterson University in New Jersey. “I suspect this discovery will change very little.”

The problem, he said, is that sometimes nature can shape stones in a way that they look as if they were manufactured by hand. Scientists know, for example, that rocks smashed together in a stream can acquire sharp edges.

But Sonia Harmand, an archaeologist at Stony Brook University in New York who studies stone tools, disagreed.

“This could be, frankly, one of the most important (archaeological) sites in the world,” Harmand said.

Asia’s mysterious role in the early origins of humanity

Bizarre fossils from China are revealing our species’ Asian origins and rewriting the story of human evolution

skull

Detlev van Ravenswaay/Getty

DECEMBER 1941. Japan has just entered the second world war. China, already fighting its neighbour, is in the firing line. At the Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Hu Chengzhi carefully packs two wooden crates with the world’s most precious anthropological artefacts. Peking Man – in reality some 200 fossilised teeth and bones, including six skulls – is to be shipped to the US for safekeeping. This is the last anyone ever sees of him.

At the time, the Peking Man remains were the oldest known fossils belonging to human ancestors. Their discovery in the 1920s and 30s caused a sensation, triggering declarations that the cradle of humanity had been found. But just a few decades later, all eyes had turned to Africa. A slew of discoveries there left little doubt that it was our true ancestral home. As far as human evolution was concerned, Asia was out of the picture.

Not any more. The last decade has seen the discovery of new Asian fossils, among others by Chinese palaeoanthropologists with a renewed interest in their heritage. As key moments in our past are rewritten, the spotlight is once more turning east.

Battle for the Med! Italy Moves to Seize “Dutch” Taxi Vessels Ferrying Hundreds of Coons to Europe

Roy Batty
Daily Stormer
June 22, 2018

Those dastardly Dutch are at it again.

BBC:

Italy says it will seize two migrant rescue ships in the Mediterranean, citing doubts over their legal status.

Italian authorities said the Lifeline and Seefuchs, operated by the German migrant rescue group Mission Lifeline, were “illegally” flying the Dutch flag.

A false flag?

The Lifeline is carrying 226 migrants rescued off the coast of Libya, Mission Lifeline said.

Separately, the UN refugee agency has reported that 220 migrants drowned in the same area in recent days.

It called for “urgent action” from EU countries. 

Let me tell you a lil’ something about urgent action:

Here’s what the Italians had to say:

Italy’s new right-wing government has taken a harder stance on rescue ships bringing large numbers of migrants to Italy, which is often the nearest port for those rescued off coast of Libya.

Italy’s Infrastructure Minister Danilo Toninelli said the ship had broken the law by taking the migrants, even though the Libyan coastguard had already intervened to rescue them.

He said Italy would seize both the Lifeline and the Seefuchs to determine their legal status, and said Italy would “once again save the migrants”.

Clearly, the Dutch are back at their old schemes and tricks again. They’re acting like pirates again, ferrying blacks and Moslems and Moslem blacks into Europe.

Only, this time the Italians are not having it.

Lads, we’re looking at a looming naval battle the likes of which we haven’t seen since Lepanto coming to the Mediterranean.

Just like it was five hundred years ago, so it is now, Moslem pirate ships are plowing the waters of the Mediterranean, landing on Europe’s shores and plundering the locals.

We need a coalition of the willing to throw back these Nigger-Moslem vessels.

So far, Italy stands alone.

Spain has capitulated and Greece is being crushed under the Merkel yoke. The Latin powers who have held the line for centuries against the heathen hordes need reinforcements.

Soon, we’re going to need to deploy the Stormer Frat Bro Yacht Divisions to help out.

Every frat in America will be mobilized, every Sperry store will be stripped down for equipment and every single fridge raided for enough Bud Light to last the voyage over and the victory celebrations for when the battle is won.

I want every single yacht bro ready to go.

Time to get prepping. I want those ships battle-ready by the end of this summer. I’m talking a machine gun where the satellite dish is now and some armor on the hull.

Time is ticking. You have all summer to get ready. Get the charts and the snacks ready.

We have to be ready to cross the Atlantic to help the Guidos at a moment’s notice.

VertigoPolitix on White Privilege, White Masculinity, White Ethnic Interests

by The Editors 

VertigoPolitix has an excellent You Tube Channel we would like to showcase. He is producing new videos regularly. We encourage our readers to become subscribers and consider a donation to his channel.

Everything is White Supremacy
White Masculinity and the Awakened Saxon


Ethnic Genetic Interests of Europeans

Based High-School Students Cyberbully Dyke Teacher into Insanity

Adrian Sol
Daily Stormer
June 15, 2018

Bullying works. Don’t ever let anyone tell you otherwise.

Here we have a heartwarming tale of heroic generation Z meme warriors defeating the forces of evil through epic cyberbullying efforts.

When you get black-pilled about life, never forget that this world isn’t all darkness and poz. There is light at the end of this tunnel. No matter how much kids may be oppressed by their demented teachers, some of these youngsters rise up and fight back against the machine – and win.

Alternet:

She never discussed her sexuality with her students – although there is no reason why she should not have. But she did post a photo of her and her partner to Instagram, and after it was discovered, that’s when the cyberbullying began.

Oh, yeah. Cyberbullying is the best kind of bullying. Because of memes.

The future is the best place to be, after all.

Amy Estes, a California middle school teacher says she went to the administrators asking for help and support, but got none. She says they ignored the problem, saying it was “drama,” and would “blow over.”

It didn’t.

Ignoring bullying never works.

Because bullying is always a result of your own degenerate behavior – whether that’s being a dirty bulldyke, or failing to bust someone’s lip when he makes fun of your Spongebob lunchbox.

To be a man, you have to fight for what you believe in. And that may include your totally lit lunchbox.

The only way to stop bullying is to correct your bad behavior, whether that means discontinuing your disgusting carpet-munching, or fighting any foo’ who gives you lip over your favorite cartoon characters.

“Estes, who has taught English at Spring View Middle School in Rocklin for five years, considered herself well-liked before the barrage of online taunts, nasty statements and memes began at the beginning of the school year,” The Sacramento Bee reports.

Lesbo memes? I wanted to see that. Why didn’t they include them in this article? Did a communist write this?

Oh, right. Nevermind.

Here’s some memes to get your fix.

So relatable…

The school not only refused to step in, but told her she should not discuss her sexuality as a means of getting the attacks to stop unless it was absolutely necessary.

“At the recommendation of her bosses, Estes tried to talk to the student she was told was the ringleader. He denied any wrongdoing,” the paper says. “She said she asked the school to investigate the social media posts and to talk to the students involved. She was told the school does not monitor what is being said on the internet. Estes says such monitoring has been done when students were bullying one another.”

Estes, it turns out, had helped to create the school’s anti-bullying curriculum, so she was familiar with ways to handle bullying.

Yeah, she sounds like a real pro!

The principal called it a teachable moment and said she wasn’t sure what Estes wanted school officials to do.

It was indeed a teachable moment. The dyke teacher could have learned to mend her degenerate ways.

But instead, she doubled down, trying to impose her sick views on her virtuous and noble students.

“What I wanted from my administration was to utilize the discipline matrix that I worked hard to establish,” said Estes, who helped build the anti-bullying curriculum used with students. “If there is hate speech, students are given a consequence – detention or other consequences. Speaking so hatefully deserved more than a teachable moment.”

It didn’t get better.

Of course not. Under an oppressive regime of state-mandated homosexuality, the righteous will rise up in protest.

These homo-kikes won’t be tolerated for much longer.

“She assigned her students a positive lesson: Write a report about how you would create a utopia and give a class presentation. When it was the girl’s turn, she said her utopia would not include gay marriage because it was bad. Her paper used a derogatory word to describe gay people, among other inflammatory things, Estes said.

The students reacted with clapping and cheers, obviously looking to her for reaction, Estes said.

And that was her breaking point.

Well done, kids. Beautiful.

This was masterfully done. The dyke teacher was forced into taking a “mental health” leave, which hopefully involved being locked in an insane asylum where she belongs.

Truly, the next generation will be titans of meme warfare

Ancient Egyptians in Ancient Ireland?

The title of this video may have you intrigued and I’m sure many of you have your doubts even before watching, but there are a number of researchers that believe they have enough evidence to push forward the idea that way back in antiquity, the Ancient Egyptians settled in Ireland. With limited, but growing archaeological evidence, as well as new interpretations of ancient Irish legends, etymological studies and DNA analysis of the ancient Irish, the claims may not be as impossible as you might first imagine.