Researchers Shows: Humans Did Not Evolve From a Single Population in Africa, and Stone tools 2.1 million years old unearthed in China

Rewriting the story of humanity’s origins: Fossil records suggest our ancestors evolved right across Africa and not just in one region

  • Experts found humans were not fully formed when they spread across the world
  • Primitive skulls and bones of homo sapiens do not show a linear progression 
  • Instead the development is much more patchy from primitive to modern  
  • It took hundreds of thousands of years before all humans began to look as we do 

A new study says the fossil record does not support humans being fully formed when they spread across the world. Left: African skull from around 300,000 years ago Right: Skull from the Levant dating from around 95,000 years ago

Primitive skulls and bones of homo sapiens do not show a linear progression from primitive to modern.

Instead the development is much more patchy – showing that it took hundreds of thousands of years before all humans began to look as we do today.

Studies of the DNA of modern day Africans – the most genetically diverse continent on Earth – paints a similar picture.

It shows human populations across the continent are so different they must have been separated for huge chunks of time.

Scientists now suggest there must have been, multiple areas where different groups of humans developed different physical features.

These early bands of early humans then interbred over millennia. Only then did modern humans as we know them develop.

The fossil record suggests early homo sapiens were a patchwork quilt of different groups.

Dr Eleanor Scerri, an archaeologist at Oxford University, who led the international research, told The Guardian: ‘This single origin, single population view has stuck in people’s mind … but the way we’ve been thinking about it is too simplistic.’

The spread of humans led to local adaptation and development of unique primitive technologies. This image shows Middle Stone Age cultural artefacts from northern and southern Africa

The spread of humans led to local adaptation and development of unique primitive technologies. This image shows Middle Stone Age cultural artefacts from northern and southern Africa

Modern humans have small, slender faces, large round braincases, and chins.

If these features only evolved in one group of humans, we might expect to see a series of skulls going from larger to smaller faces, and gradually bigger, rounder braincases.

The fossil picture is much more complicated.

For example, skulls dating to 300,000 years ago found at Jebel Irhoud in Morocco – have small faces like modern humans.

But instead of a spherical braincase, theirs is long and elongated.

Meanwhile early human fossils dating more recently to 160,000 years ago – at Herto in Ethiopia – had big ‘robust’ faces – unlike us – but with ‘globular’ braincases like ours.

Professor Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum and Dr Scerri have put forward the case in the journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

The authors said early humans were largely kept apart by a combination of diverse habitats and shifting environmental boundaries, such as forests and deserts.

Many of the most inhospitable regions in Africa today, such as the Sahara, were once wet and green, with interwoven networks of lakes and rivers, and abundant wildlife.

Designers used the fossils to recreate what they think the first Homo sapiens across Africa looked like 300,000 years ago. But the new research suggests early humans had a huge variation in the sizes and shapes of their heads

Designers used the fossils to recreate what they think the first Homo sapiens across Africa looked like 300,000 years ago. But the new research suggests early humans had a huge variation in the sizes and shapes of their heads

Similarly, some tropical regions that are humid and green today were once arid.

The shifting nature of these habitable zones meant human populations would have gone through many cycles of isolation.

This led to local adaptation and the development of unique primitive technologies – stone tools – and genetic makeup.

Professor Stringer pioneered the idea one big human population developed in Africa and spread worldwide – but now concedes this does not fit the facts.

He said when we look at human bones over the last 300,000 years ‘we see a complex mix of archaic and modern features in different places and at different times.

‘We do see a continental-wide trend towards the modern human form, but some archaic features are present until remarkably recently.’

When it comes to the development of stone tools, the pattern is also mixed.

Sometimes sophisticated tools appear further back in the fossil record, while cruder ones appear more recently – suggesting innovations occurred at different spots on the map at different times.

Prof Chris Stringer added: ‘Although I am one of the researchers who originally helped to develop the view that our species, Homo sapiens, had originated in Africa, I have increasingly come to the realisation that our African origin was a complex process.

‘The great diversity of African fossils between 200,000 and 400,000 years ago suggests that multiple lineages existed on the African continent at that time.’

This artist's impression shows the patchwork of diverse fossils, artefacts and environments across Africa indicate that our species emerged from the interactions between a set of interlinked populations living across the continent, whose connectivity changed through time

This artist’s impression shows the patchwork of diverse fossils, artefacts and environments across Africa indicate that our species emerged from the interactions between a set of interlinked populations living across the continent, whose connectivity changed through time

Dr Scerri, said the stone tools discovered across Africa also don’t show a clear progression from crude to sophisticated.

She added that while there ‘is a continental-wide trend’ to greater sophistication over time, she said: ‘this ‘modernization’ clearly doesn’t originate in one region or occur at one time period.’

Professor Mark Thomas said the genetic patterns found in modern day Africans also support the idea.

He said: ‘It is difficult to reconcile the genetic patterns we see in living Africans, and in the DNA extracted from the bones of Africans who lived over the last 10,000 years, with there being one ancestral human population.’

Dr Scerri said: ‘The evolution of human populations in Africa was multi-regional. Our ancestry was multi-ethnic. And the evolution of our material culture was, well, multi-cultural.’

The full findings of the study were published in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT HUMANKIND’S JOURNEY OUT OF AFRICA?

The traditional view

The traditional ‘Out of Africa’ model suggests that modern humans evolved in Africa and then left in a single wave around 60,000 years ago.

The model often holds once modern humans left the continent, a brief period of interbreeding with Neanderthals occurred.

This explains why individuals of European and Asian heritage today still have ancient human DNA.

There are many theories as to what drove the downfall of the Neanderthals.

Experts have suggested that early humans may have carried tropical diseases with them from Africa that wiped out their ape-like cousins.

Others claim that plummeting temperatures due to climate change wiped out the Neanderthals.

The predominant theory is that early humans killed off the Neanderthal through competition for food and habitat.

How the story is changing in light of new research

Recent findings suggest that the ‘Out of Africa’ theory does not tell the full story of our ancestors.

Instead, multiple, smaller movements of humans out of Africa beginning 120,000 years ago were then followed by a major migration 60,000 years ago.

Most of our DNA is made up of this latter group, but the earlier migrations, also known as ‘dispersals’, are still evident.

This explains recent studies of early human remains which have been found in the far reaches of Asia dating back further than 60,000 years.

For example, H. sapiens remains have been found at multiple sites in southern and central China that have been dated to between 70,000 and 120,000 years ago.

Other recent finds show that modern humans reached Southeast Asia and Australia prior to 60,000 years ago.

Based on these studies, humans could not have come in a single wave from Africa around this time, studies have found.

Instead, the origin of man suggests that modern humans developed in multiple regions around the world.

The theory claims that groups of a pre-human ancestors made their way out of Africa and spread across parts of Europe and the Middle East.

From here the species developed into modern humans in several places at once.

The argument is by a new analysis of a 260,000-year-old skull found in Dali County in China’s Shaanxi Province.

The skull suggests that early humans migrated to Asia, where they evolved modern human traits and then moved back to Africa.

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When it comes to the origins of our species, Homo sapiens, most scholars have accepted that we originated in Africa around 300,000 years ago, likely from a single population.

However, research published in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution has challenged this view, suggesting that our ancestors were scattered across the entire African continent and did not stem from a specific region.

This fractured evolution meant that our species was both physically and culturally diverse right from the very beginning, according to an interdisciplinary group of researchers led by Eleanor Scerri, an archaeologist from the University of Oxford and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

For the study, the team combined approaches from various disciplines, including anthropology, archaeology and genetics, in addition to reconstructing Africa’s past climate, to build a picture of how modern humans have evolved over the last 300,000 years.

They found that not only were Homo sapiens scattered across Africa when we emerged as a species, but these populations were also largely kept apart due to a combination of physical barriers, such as forests and deserts, leading to diversification.

However, these environments often shifted over time, spurring migrations which created some contact opportunities. This may have meant that populations could have gone through cycles of cultural and genetic mixing before becoming isolated again.

This new model of human evolution better explains the available genetic, fossil and archaeological evidence, the researchers said.

For example, this model can explain why human bone fossils from the last 300,000 years vary significantly, with a mix of archaic and modern features appearing in different places and at different times.

“In the fossil record, we see a mosaic-like, continental-wide trend toward the modern human form, and the fact that these features appear at different places at different times tells us that these populations were not well connected,” Scerri, said in a statement.

The archaeological evidence also lends weight to the new hypothesis.

“Stone tools and other artifacts—usually referred to as material culture—have remarkably clustered distributions in space and through time,” Scerri said. “While there is a continental-wide trend toward more sophisticated material culture, this ‘modernization’ clearly doesn’t originate in one region or occur at one time period.”

Evolutionary changes are seen between the skull bones of two different Homo sapiens. New findings suggest that modern humans evolved in populations that were scattered across the African continent. Philipp Gunz, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Evolutionary changes are seen between the skull bones of two different Homo sapiens. New findings suggest that modern humans evolved in populations that were scattered across the African continent. Philipp Gunz, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Finally, the team’s analysis of the available genetic data indicates that the single origin model is insufficient, according to Mark Thomas, a geneticist from University College London and co-author of the study.

“It is difficult to reconcile the genetic patterns we see in living Africans, and in the DNA extracted from the bones of Africans who lived over the last 10,000 years, with there being one ancestral human population,” he said. “We see indications of reduced connectivity very deep in the past, some very old genetic lineages, and levels of overall diversity that a single population would struggle to maintain.”

The new research highlights how the evolution of modern humans in Africa was a multiregional, multiethnic and multicultural phenomenon, Scerri concluded.

A homo sapiens skull on display at the Sirindhorn Museum of Nature and Science in Thailand. Credit: Shutterstock

Early Humans Probably Didn’t Evolve from a Single Population in Africa

Homo sapiens are incredibly diverse — we live in wildly different societies, follow different rules and love and fear different gods.

Despite that awesome diversity, mounting evidence suggests the first humans were even more different from one another than we are today.

In a new commentary published online on Wednesday (July 11) in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution, an interdisciplinary group that includes geneticists, bioanthropologists, and archaeologists argues that we didn’t evolve from a single population in a single region of Africa, but rather from separate populations across Africa that fully mixed only much later. [Image Gallery: Our Closest Human Ancestor]

Evidence is showing that “human ancestors were already scattered across Africa,” said Eleanor Scerri, a research fellow at Oxford University and lead author of the paper. And the combination of behavioral and physical and cognitive features that define us today started to slowly emerge within the occasional mixing of these different ancestral groups,” she added. (Scerri is also a research associate for the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Germany.)

To draw this conclusion, Scerri and her team not only looked at the available fossil evidence, but also at genetic, archaeological and paleoenvironmental data.

About half a million years ago, Neanderthals and Homo sapiens began to diverge from a common ancestor, according to Scerri. But only around 300,000 years ago did early people actually begin to have features that made them look like humans, she said.

Even then, “all the fossils between 300,000 years ago and about 100,000 years ago don’t really look like anyone living today,” Scerri told Live Science. The features that define us today, such as a small face, prominent chins, a globular skull and small teeth, were indeed present back then, but not all in a single person, she said.

“These features tend to be distributed across the early fossils in different combinations with different, what we call, more primitive or archaic features that we don’t see in anyone living today,” Scerri said. So, someone in Eastern Africa may have had the small teeth, whereas someone in southern Africa may have had a globular skull while the rest of their features remained primitive.

And these groups remained separate for a long time, because the dense forests and deserts in Africa served as formidable barriers, according to Scerri. But with the occasional mixing of different groups, between 100,000 and 40,000 years ago, fossils that combine all the modern features in a single individual begin to appear, Scerri said.

“Which means, of course, that evolution probably progressed at a different speed and tempo in different regions of Africa as different groups came into contact with each other at different times,” Scerri said. Though it’s not clear when most humans on the planet had these modern features, by about 12,000 years ago, when hunting and gathering gradually shifted to agriculture, archaic features such as an elongated head and large robust faces had all but disappeared in humans, Scerri said. (In any case, these archaic features, it should be noted, don’t correspond to how “culturally backward” a culture was, Scerri added.)

Ancient tools also buttress this theory, Scerri said.

For about two million years, hominins made “somewhat crude” handheld tools like hand axes or large cutting tools, Scerri said. About 300,000 years ago, “there’s really an explosion of different and specialized stone tool forms,” she added. These tools, that often used different bindings, different glues, and different designs, took hold in different places across the continent.

“I think there are just a handful of people who are really, really strong proponents of the idea that modern people came from one very restricted region,” said Becky Ackermann, a biological anthropologist at the University of Cape Town in South Africa who was not an author of the commentary. So “I don’t think the conclusions themselves were particularly novel.” [Top 10 Mysteries of the First Humans]

However, “it’s good to see [these ideas] being considered in kind of a holistic way,” she added.

“Who was arguing the contrary?” said Jon Marks, a professor of anthropology at University of North Carolina, Charlotte, who was also not part of the study. Though the findings didn’t come as a shock to Marks, he thinks they point to an important problem in the field — we might be using the wrong metaphors to describe evolution, namely, Darwin’s branching tree.

“What we’re seeing is a tree is not necessarily the most appropriate metaphor to apply to recent human ancestry,” Marks told Live Science. The more appropriate metaphors would be something that branches and then comes back together, rather than branches on a tree, he said.

These could include the roots of a tree, braided streams or capillary systems, he said.

Originally published on Live Science.

 

Stone tools 2.1 million years old unearthed in China suggest human kin left Africa earlier than thought

Stone tools recovered from an excavation in China suggest that our evolutionary forerunners trekked out of Africa earlier than we had thought.

Until now, the oldest evidence of human-like creatures outside Africa came from 1.8-million-year-old artifacts and skulls found in the Georgian town of Dmanisi. The new find pushes that back by at least 250,000 years. There have been other claims of even older fossil discoveries, the study authors said, but those remain unproven.

“There may be older evidence in places like India and Pakistan, but so far … the evidence is not strong enough to convince most of the research community,” said study co-author Robin Dennell of Exeter University in England. “With this type of claim, for an early human presence in a region, the evidence has to be absolutely water-tight and bomb-proof.”

“It’s absolutely a new story,” said archaeologist Michael Petraglia of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, who did not participate in the study. “It means that early humans were getting out of Africa way earlier than we ever realized.”

That exit came long before our own species, Homo sapiens, even appeared. The researchers believe the tools were made by another member of the Homo evolutionary group. “Our discovery means that it is necessary now to reconsider the timing of when early humans left Africa,” Dennell said.

Hominins — humans and their extinct predecessors and relatives — are believed to have emerged in Africa more than 6 million years ago. They are thought to have left the continent in several migration waves starting about 2 million years ago.

The first migrants were likely members of the species Homo erectus (“upright man”) or Homo ergaster (“working man”) — extinct predecessors of Homo sapiens (“wise man”), which first emerged about 300,000 years ago in Africa.

The oldest known African fossil attributed to a member of the Homo family is a 2.8-million-year-old jawbone from Ethiopia.

The items found in China include several chipped rocks, fragments and hammer stones. The 96 artifacts — mainly flakes made with rudimentary hammers, and likely used for cutting meat and other food — were dug up from 17 layers of sediment in an area known as the Loess Plateau, north of the Qinling Mountains, which divide the north and south of China.

The youngest layer where tools were found was 1.26 million years old, and the oldest 2.12 million years, according to the study published in Wednesday’s journal Nature. The layers were used to date the tools, which are of a type known to have been manufactured by Homo species in Africa since at least 3.3 million years ago.

So far, no hominin bones have been found.

The team used paleomagnetism — minerals that show how the Earth’s magnetic field was oriented when they formed — to date the sediment layers, and so the artifacts found within them. The dates of geomagnetic reversals, when north and south flipped, are well known to scientists, and the movements of the magnetic poles and the continents can narrow down a date.

“We were very excited,” said Zhaoyu Zhu, a professor at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, who led the fieldwork. “One of my colleagues suddenly noticed a stone embedded in a steep outcrop. After a short while, more artifacts were found — one after another.”

The tools were distributed throughout layers of dirt, suggesting that our unidentified ancient relatives came back to the same site over and over, possibly following animals to hunt. Researchers also found bones of pigs and deer, but were not able to provide proof that the tools were used for hunting.

Some experts not involved in the research think that the findings need to be considered with caution. “I am skeptical,” said Geoffrey Pope, an anthropologist from William Paterson University in New Jersey. “I suspect this discovery will change very little.”

The problem, he said, is that sometimes nature can shape stones in a way that they look as if they were manufactured by hand. Scientists know, for example, that rocks smashed together in a stream can acquire sharp edges.

But Sonia Harmand, an archaeologist at Stony Brook University in New York who studies stone tools, disagreed.

“This could be, frankly, one of the most important (archaeological) sites in the world,” Harmand said.

Asia’s mysterious role in the early origins of humanity

Bizarre fossils from China are revealing our species’ Asian origins and rewriting the story of human evolution

skull

Detlev van Ravenswaay/Getty

DECEMBER 1941. Japan has just entered the second world war. China, already fighting its neighbour, is in the firing line. At the Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Hu Chengzhi carefully packs two wooden crates with the world’s most precious anthropological artefacts. Peking Man – in reality some 200 fossilised teeth and bones, including six skulls – is to be shipped to the US for safekeeping. This is the last anyone ever sees of him.

At the time, the Peking Man remains were the oldest known fossils belonging to human ancestors. Their discovery in the 1920s and 30s caused a sensation, triggering declarations that the cradle of humanity had been found. But just a few decades later, all eyes had turned to Africa. A slew of discoveries there left little doubt that it was our true ancestral home. As far as human evolution was concerned, Asia was out of the picture.

Not any more. The last decade has seen the discovery of new Asian fossils, among others by Chinese palaeoanthropologists with a renewed interest in their heritage. As key moments in our past are rewritten, the spotlight is once more turning east.

New Forbidden Archaeology Documentary 2018 Ancient Ruins That Defy Mainstream History

Ancient mysterious ruins have been discovered all over the world, how could these stones have been cut so precise by ancient humans? Some refer to these ancient ruins as the result of ‘Impossible’ Ancient Engineering. Could it be possible that there is much more to the history of this planet than we are being taught? For years, historians and archaeologists have absolutely marveled at these incredibly huge megalith and asked did ancient civilizations have a technology so advanced we still don’t understand it.

Watch mind provoking, eye opening, educational, controversial, awesome documentaries by subscribing and of course hit the bell button at the top tight of the screen. We will make each film expand the horizons of the viewers open to learning more about the world. We hope you will discover many facts you may have been previously unaware of in this very educational advanced ancient civilizations expose.

These are some of the world’s greatest ancient ruins, some of these places defy belief. Thousands exist in Asia, across millions of miles, some still yet to be discovered. The most mysterious ancient sites are composed of massive megaliths and stones that appear to be worked with laser-like tools was built thousands of years ago in modern-day Asia. The temples and Stupa’s you are about to see will leave you opened mouthed at their beauty, you will also wonder how they could create such monuments 1000’s of years ago.

Watch mind provoking, eye opening, educational, controversial, awesome documentaries by subscribing and of course hit the bell button at the top tight of the screen. We will make each film expand the horizons of the viewers open to learning more about the world. We hope you will discover many facts you may have been previously unaware of in this very educational Ancient Asia expose.

Ancient Egypt documentary shows it was a fascinating place. Its mysterious civilization, powerful gods, and stunning pyramids have captured our imagination for thousands of years. Much can be attributed to the ancient Egyptians, even some of the earliest forms of technology and inventions that we still use. From the pyramids in the north to the temples in the south, ancient artisans left their marks all over Egypt, unique marks that reveal craftsmanship we would be hard pressed to duplicate today.

Watch mind provoking, eye opening, educational, controversial, awesome documentaries by subscribing and of course hit the bell button at the top tight of the screen. We will make each film expand the horizons of the viewers open to learning more about the world. We hope you will discover many facts you may have been previously unaware of in this very educational Ancient Egypt expose.

Deep within the jungles of Mexico and Guatemala and extending into the limestone shelf of the Yucatan peninsula lie mysterious temples and pyramids. Despite the towering reputation of Egypt’s Great Pyramids at Giza, the documentary shows the Americas actually contain more pyramid structures than the rest of the planet combined. Civilizations like the Olmec, Maya, Aztec and Inca all built pyramids. These were usually step pyramids, with temples on top more akin to the ziggurats of Mesopotamia than the Pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Mesoamerican Pyramids served many functions from – from astronomical observatories to places of ritual worship and sacrifice, and perhaps sometimes these are linked to extraterrestrials, but who really built these pyramids and why?

Watch mind provoking, eye opening, educational, controversial, awesome documentaries by subscribing and of course hit the bell button at the top tight of the screen. We will make each film expand the horizons of the viewers open to learning more about the world. We hope you will discover many facts you may have been previously unaware of in this very educational ancient history expose.

Some Important Facts From March Of The Titans

Prologue: Some Important Facts

 Prologue: Some Important Facts

Crucial to the understanding of the theme of this book and its related volumes is an understanding of the concepts of race, ethnicity, and culture.

Race, Ethnicity, and Culture

A race is defined as a group of individuals sharing common genetic attributes which determine that group’s physical appearance and, more controversially, their cognitive abilities. Ethnicity is defined as the creation of groups by individuals (most often within racial groups but also possible across racial divides) of certain common traditions, languages, art forms, attitudes, and other means of expression.

A culture is the name given to the physical manifestations created by ethnic groups—the actual language, art forms, religion, social order, and achievements of a particular ethnic group. In practical terms then, it is possible to talk of a white race; of a Scottish ethnicity, and a Scottish culture. The last two—ethnicity and culture—are directly dependent upon each other, and flow from each other in a symbiotic relationship. This book deals primarily with white racial history, and flowing from that, white ethnic groups and cultures.

The White Race—Three Subgroups

What exactly is meant by the white race? Essentially there are three main subgroups with two further divisions of note. The three major subgroups are known to academics as Nordic, Alpine, and Mediterranean.

Although these names have come about mainly as a result of the geographic areas these subgroups have been associated with in the Christian era (Nordics in northern Europe, Alpines in central Europe and Mediterraneansin southern Europe), it is incorrect to believe that these groups always occupied these regions.

The three main subgroups have played a role in events in almost every geographical region where the white race as a group has appeared. Of these three original groups, only two are existent in any large number today: the Nordics and the Alpines. The original Mediterraneans of ancient history are not to be confused with those people loosely termed “Mediterranean” today. The original white Mediterranean component has been largely dissipated into two distinct groups: those who have absorbed Alpine or Nordic white subracial elements; and those who have absorbed North African or other nonwhite racial elements.

To illustrate the concept of these three main subgroups: although there is a broadly termed “black race” in existence, there are major subgroups amongst that racial group. The Congo basin Pygmy and the ultra tall Masai tribesmen of Kenya are two good examples of subgroups within the black racial group.

A subgroup, therefore, is a branch of a particular race which exhibits slightly different physical characteristics but still shares enough of a common genetic inheritance with other subgroups to be included in a broad racial category. This is known as the concept of genetic commonality, and is the basis of all racial categories.

Nordic—Tall, Slim, Light Eyes, and Hair

The Nordic racial subgroup, which is still largely in existence today, is characterized by light colored hair and eyes, a tall slim build, and a distinctive “long” (that is, thin and extended) skull shape.

Nordic—The skull of a member of the Nordic white subrace, viewed from the front and the side. The “long” nature of the facial structure is clearly visible. Alongside is a classic Nordic male from Sweden.

Alpine—‘Solid’ Body, Round Head, Brown Eyes

The Alpine racial subgroup, which also still exists in a large measure today, is characterized by brown hair and eyes, a short, more “solid” body build and a distinctive “round” (that is, almost, but not quite, circular) skull shape.

Alpine—The skull of a member of the Alpine white subrace, viewed from the front and the side. The “shorter” facial structure is apparent. Alongside is a classic Alpine male from southern Germany.

Mediterranean—Mixture of Body Types

The original Mediterranean racial subgroup no longer exists today. It was the first of the three white racial subgroups to disappear from the earth, submerged into the gene pools of surrounding races.

Mediterranean—A skull of a member of the Mediterranean white subrace, viewed from the front and side. Alongside, a WWI Welsh soldier—as close an example of a Mediterranean as can be found in modern times.

The Mediterranean subgroup was predominantly (but not totally) characterized by dark hair and eye color, slim (Nordic), or solid (Alpine) build and either long or round skull shapes. It is worth stating again, as it is of great significance in more ways than one, that there are very few of these original Mediterranean racial types left in the world today. They were known as the “Old Europeans” and inhabited large parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Egypt at the dawn of history. These Mediterranean types bear almost no resemblance to the present day inhabitants of the Mediterranean basin.

The original Old Europeans have been absorbed almost completely into either the Nordic/Alpine stock in Europe, or the African/Semitic/Asian stock of North Africa, and the Middle East.

There are two places in Europe where occasional glimpses of this original Mediterranean racial subgroup can still be seen: the Celtic fringes of Britain (most notably in Wales and Devonshire) and in the Basque territory of Spain. In these regions there exists a short, dark strain—remnants of the original inhabitants of Europe.

Pure examples of this Mediterranean type are rare, as they have for the largest degree had some Nordic or Alpine admixture over the years. Unfortunately there has also been some admixture from North Africa. Nonetheless, it is still possible today to talk of “Mediterranean” whites even though they do not identically represent those of antiquity.

Other Subgroups—Dinarics and East Baltics

Two other white racial subgroups exist (Dinarics and East Baltics). These types differ slightly in skull shape and body dimensions from the three main groups outlined above, but they share a great number of physical characteristics such as hair and eye color.

As with the Alpines and Mediterraneans, there has been a great deal of mixing with the three main subgroups. They are found in large numbers in present day Eastern Europe. A very small percentage of these two subgroups also display the physical characteristics resulting from mixing with the waves of Asiatic invaders who penetrated Europe from the east during the course of history.

Whites Defined by Genetic Commonality

For the purposes of this book, an ethnic or cultural group is defined as part of the white race as long as it shares enough of a common genetic inheritance with the broader racial group. When an ethnic group loses this genetic commonality it is then formally excluded from the white racial category.

Tracking Race

How is race tracked in civilization? How is it determined whether the populations of certain societies or civilizations belonged to specific races? The answer to this is simple. Race in history is tracked in four ways: paleoserology, art forms, language, and the science of genetics. This last test has only come into its own in the last ten years of the twentieth century, but has proven to be a major aid in tracking racial history.

Paleoserology Reveals Racial Types

Paleoserology is the study of skeletal remains. As different racial groups have different physical characteristics, it is a relatively simple matter to determine the racial makeup of the inhabitants of a particular region by studying the contents of grave sites. This skill is often used by modern police pathologists to identify the race of corpses. This science has proven equally useful in historical diggings where the examination of burial sites has created an understanding of the racial makeup of ancient peoples.

Race Appears in Art Forms

Art forms (whether conventional pictures, illustrations on pottery, or even statues) also provide significant indicators of the racial makeup of contemporary inhabitants. The ancient civilizations in particular—of all racial group—reflected themselves in their art forms (often because their own racial types were the only human models from which they had to work).

In this way, for example, early Chinese art depicted principally Chinese people; Incan and Aztec art depicted only Incan or Aztec people, and so on. In all societies, original art forms which portrayed people closely followed contemporary physical appearances. This principle is well illustrated in the four art forms portrayed below.

Tracking race in history: race depicted in art forms. Early civilizations very often depicted images of their own racial types in their works of art, based on the reality that their own types were the most common (or only) human models with which they had to work. A comparison of (from left to right) Olmec art, 400 BC; African art, circa 1400 AD; Japanese art, 1000 AD; and Greek art, 340 BC, reflects this principle well. The study of art forms is a reliable indicator of the racial type of the communities in which the art works were created.

Genetics Reveals Racial Past

All human beings have three sorts of genes: mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited through the female line; Y-Chromosomes which are inherited through the male line, and autosomal DNA, which is inherited from both sexes. The study of genetics has served to confirm the accuracy of many historical accounts of racial movements, and is particularly useful in showing cause and effect in the rise and fall of civilizations, as demonstrated in this book.

Research carried out by L.L. Cavalli-Sforza and two colleagues, P. Menozziand A. Piazzia, in their work The History and Geography of Human Genes (1994), has revealed an astonishing 2,288 genetic point difference between whites and black Africans. The research found that the English differ from the Danes, Germans, and French by a mere 21–25 points of genetic distance, whereas they differ from North American Indians by 947 points, from black Africans by 2,288 points, and from MbutiPygmies by 2,373 points. Cavalli-Sforza also used Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA—transferred through the maternal line) to divide the world up into seven distinct races, classifying whites as part of the “Caucasoid” group for his study.

Above: A map showing the pre-1500 AD Y-Chromosome distribution in the world, and below, a map showing the mtDNA chromosome distribution. Y-Chromosomes are male genetic markers, passed down unchanged through the male line, and mtDNA chromosomes are the female equivalent.

Language Reflects Racial Similarities

The study of language is another important clue to the dispersion of peoples. Commonalities in language forms leave clearly identifiable “fingerprints” in cultures. Similar words, phrases, or language forms are a clear indication of a single origin for civilizations, due to the fact that the people in those civilizations would at some stage have had a common origin. In this way the route of a culture (and hence a people) can be traced by following a language.

English
brother
mother
father
German
bruder
mutter
vater
Greek
bhrater
meter
pater
Old Persian
brater
matter
pitar
Sanskrit
bhrater
matar
pitar
Russian/Ukrainian
(non-Cyrillic spelling.)
Brat (pronounces as “Braht”)
Mater (or just Maht with soft “t”)
Batya (pronounces as “Bahtya”)

 An Objective Definition of Civilization

For the purposes of this book, civilization will be taken to mean the entire ambit of social/cultural manifestations which are characteristic to any particular nation or racial group. In this way the accusation of subjectivity can be avoided. Civilization, in the broadest sense of the word, includes all social manifestations, from social interactions to language, art forms, science, technology, customs, and culture.

It is therefore possible to talk of a Japanese civilization, an American Indian (Amerind) civilization, a Polynesian civilization, an Australian Aboriginal civilization, a black civilization and a white civilization, without being subjective about any of them.

The Question Posed by a “Rise and Fall”

When reviewing the historical development of all nations, quite often mention is made of a “rise and fall” of a particular civilization. This poses a major question: Why have some civilizations lasted a thousand years or more, while others rise and collapse within a few hundred? Why is it, for example, that nations such as Japan, Sweden, and England—all nations with limited natural resources—could have progressive active cultures for more than one thousand years; whereas mighty civilizations such as Classical Rome, Greece, or Persia, amongst others, collapse after only a few centuries?

Politically correct historians blame the rise and fall of the great nations of the past on politics, economics, morals, lawlessness, debt, environment, and a host of other superficial reasons.

However, Japan, England, and Sweden have gone through similar crises scores of times, without those countries falling into decay. It is obvious that there must be some other factor at work—something much more fundamental than just variations in politics, morals, lawlessness, or any of the other hundreds of reasons that historians have manufactured in their attempts to explain the collapse of civilizations.

Each Society Unique to Each People

Herein lies the key to understanding the rise and fall of all civilizations. In any given territory, the people making up the society in that territory create a culture which is unique to themselves.

A society or civilization is only a reflection of the population of that particular territory. For example, the Chinese civilization is a product of the Chinese people, and is a reflection of the makeup of the population living in China. The Chinese civilization is unique to the Chinese people; they made it and it reflects their values and norms.

As the Chinese people made the Chinese civilization, it logically follows that the Chinese culture would disappear if the Chinese people were to disappear. Presently the overwhelming majority of Chinese people live in China, creating the Chinese civilization in that land. If, however, Australian Aborigines had to immigrate into China in their millions, and the Chinese population had to dramatically reduce in number, then in a few years the character of Chinese civilization would change—to reflect the new inhabitants of that territory.

In other words, the society or civilization of that territory would then reflect the fact that the majority of inhabitants were now Aborigines rather than Chinese people. If China had to fill up with Aborigines, this would mean the end of Chinese civilization. Aborigines would create a new civilization which would reflect themselves, and not that of the Chinese people.

That this should happen is perfectly logical. It has nothing to do with which culture is more advanced, or any notions of superiority or inferiority. It is merely a reflection of the fact that a civilization is a product of the nature of the people making up the population in the territory.

A Theoretical Example: No Chinese People Means No Chinese Civilization

To go back to the Chinese example: If all Chinese people on earth had to disappear tomorrow, then fairly obviously, Chinese civilization and culture would disappear with them. It is this startlingly obvious principle which determines the creation and dissolution of civilizations—once the people who create a certain society or civilization disappear, then that society or civilization will disappear with them. If the vanished population is replaced by different peoples, then a new society or culture is created which reflects the culture and civilization of the new inhabitants of that region.

A Practical Example: Arrival of Whites Changed American Civilization

There are numerous examples of this process at work. One which will be familiar to all is the shift which occurred in North America. On that continent, the Amerind (American Indian) people lived for thousands of years, creating a civilization which dominated that continent. In other words, the civilization and culture which dominated North America reflected the fact that the Amerind people lived and formed the majority population there.

After 1500 AD that continent filled up with white immigrants from Europe. These white immigrants displaced the Amerinds by squeezing them out of possession of North America.

The great shift in North American civilization then occurred. Whereas the Amerind culture had dominated for thousands of years, within a couple hundred years the dominant civilization on that continent had become white European. This shift reflected the fact that the majority of inhabitants of North America were white Europeans—and the Amerind civilization, for all practical purposes, disappeared.

The Amerind civilization in North America “fell” because the population of North America changed.

Racial Shift Paramount

This effect—the displacement of peoples and the subsequent disappearance of their civilization—has direct implications in racial terms. The rise and fall of any particular civilization can be traced, not by the economics, politics, morals, etc., of a particular civilization, but rather by the actual racial presence of the people themselves.

If the society which has produced a particular civilization stays intact as a racially homogeneous unit, then that civilization remains active. If, however, the society within any particular given area changes its racial makeup—through invasion, immigration, or any decline in numbers—then the civilization which that society has produced will disappear with them, to be replaced by a new civilization reflecting the new inhabitants of that territory.

Egypt: Same country, different people. Above left: The white pharaoh, Queen Nefertiti, circa 1350 BC; Above center: The effects of racial mixing are clearly to be seen on the face of this coffin portrait of a Roman lady in Hawara, Egypt, 100 AD; Above right: The mixed race Egyptian, Anwar Sadat, president of Egypt in the twentieth century. Nefertiti ruled over an advanced civilization; Sadat ruled over a third world country. The reason for the difference in cultures between Nefertiti’s Egypt and Sadat’s Egypt was that the Egyptian people had changed.

Disappearance of Whites Led to the Collapse of Their Civilizations

Originally created by Proto-Nordics, Alpines, and Mediterraneans, and then influenced by waves of Indo-European invaders, the white civilizations in the Middle East all flourished, producing the wonders of the ancient world.

These regions were either invaded or otherwise occupied (through the use of laborers, immigration, or in rare cases, by conquest) by nonwhitenations of varying races. When the original white peoples who created those civilizations vanished or became an insignificant minority (through death and absorption into other races), their civilizations “fell” in exactly the same way that the Amerind civilization in North America “fell.”

500 BC—First Turning Point 

It was around the year 500 BC that the first great turning point in white history was reached. This was the decline of the first great white civilizations in the Middle East and their subsequent replacement by nations and peoples of a substantially different racial makeup.

Up until this time the development of the white race’s territorial expansion was such that they were a majority in Europe and all of Russia west of the Urals. They formed a significant component of the population of the Middle East and their rule extended into the Indus River Valley in Northern India.

India—Origin of the Caste System

In India, for example, the Indo-Aryan population was diminished by four factors:

• A large nonwhite (Indian) immigration northward to do work offered by the society set up by the conquering Indo-Aryans;
• A high natural reproduction level amongst the nonwhiteimmigrants;
• The level of racial mixing amongst Aryans and the Indians, which, by creating a new mixed ethnic identity, also changed the racial makeup of the inhabitants of the region; and
• A decline in the birth rate amongst the Aryans.

In India, the invading Indo-Aryans established a strict segregation system to keep themselves separate from the local dark skinned native population. This system was so strict that it has lasted to this day and has become known as the caste system.

However, even the strictest segregation (and Aryan laws prescribing punishments such as death for miscegenation) did not prevent the majority population from eventually swallowing up the ruling Aryans until the situation has been reached today where only a very few high caste Brahmin Indians could still pass as Europeans.

Exactly the same thing happened in Central Asia, Egypt, Sumeria, and to a lesser degree, modern Turkey. Slowly but surely, as these civilizations relied more and more on others to do their work for them, or were physically conquered by other races, their population makeup became darker and darker.

Miscegenation with Nonwhite Slaves Caused Egyptian Decline

From the time of the Old Kingdom, the original white Egyptians had been using Nubians, blacks, and Semites (or Arabs) to work on many of their building projects or as general slaves.

At various stages the pharaohs also employed Nubian mercenaries, and ultimately Nubia and Sudan were physically occupied and incorporated into the Egyptian empire. Although the buildings of ancient Egypt are very impressive—many having survived through to the present day, their construction was dependent on the Egyptian ability to organize an unprecedented mass of human labor.

Under the direction of a scribe and architect, thousands of slaves and regiments of soldiers laboredfor decades to create the great buildings, using only levers, sleds, and massive ramps of earth. It is impossible to think that such massive use of slave and foreign labor would not have left some mark on the population of the land. Interbreeding took place, and this, combined with the natural growth and reproduction patterns of the slaves and laborers, meant that in a relatively short time they comprised a significant section of the population.

Several attempts were made to prevent large numbers of Nubians from settling in Egypt. One of the first recorded racial separation laws was inscribed on a stone on the banks of the southern Nile which forbade Nubians from proceeding north of that point. Nonetheless, the continuous use of Nubians for labor eventually led to the establishment of a large resident nonwhite population in Egypt, with their numbers being augmented by natural reproduction and continued immigration.

The region was also occupied for two hundred years by the Semitic Hyksos, who intermarried with the local population, and this was followed by other Semitic/Arabic immigration, fueled by the long existing black settlement on the southernmost reaches of the Nile River.

Once again the factors which led to the extinction of the Aryans in India came into play in Egypt: a resident nonwhite population to do the labor, a natural increase in nonwhite numbers, physical integration, and a decline in the original white birthrate.

All these factors compounded to produce an Egyptian population makeup of today that is very different from the men and women who founded Egypt and designed the pyramids.

As the population makeup shifted, so the cultural manifestations, or civilization, of that region changed to the point where the present day population of the Middle East is not by any stretch of the imagination classifiable as white. This explains why the present inhabitants of Egypt are not the same people who designed the pyramids.

The Egyptians of today are a completely different people, racially and culturally, living amongst the ruins of another race’s civilization.

Identical Reasons for Decline in Middle East 

The decline and eventual extinction of the white population in the Middle East marked the end of the original civilizations in those regions. In all the Middle Eastern countries the Semitic (Arabic) and black populations grew as they were used as laborby the ruling whites. In the case of Sumer, the white rulers were physically displaced by military conquest at the hands of Semitic invaders.

This process continued until almost all remains of the original whites in the greater region were assimilated into the darker populations. Only the occasional appearance of light colored hair or eyes amongst today’s Iraqis, Iranians, Syrians, and Palestinians serve as reminders of the original rulers of these territories.

Lesson—Role of Racially Foreign Labor in the Decline of a Civilization

The lesson is clear: a civilization will remain intact as long as its creating race remains in existence. This applies to all races equally—white, black, Mongolian or any other. As long as a civilization’s founding race maintains its territorial integrity and does not use large numbers of any other alien race to do its labor, that civilization will remain in existence.

If a civilization allows large numbers of racial aliens into its midst (most often as laborers) and then integrates with those newcomers, that civilization will change to reflect the new racial makeup of the population.

Any civilization—be it white, black, Asian, or Aboriginal—stands or falls by the homogeneity of its population, and nothing else. As soon as a society loses its homogeneity, the nature of that society changes. This simple fact, often ignored by historians, provides the key to understanding the rise and fall of all civilizations, irrespective of race.

Evidence of black slaves in Egyptian and Grecian society. Left: Nubian (African) slaves as depicted in ancient Egyptian art, and right two Greek vases, dating from the fifth century BC, show the racial types of two slaves, a Semite and a black.

History Is a Function of Race

The early white civilizations in Greece and Rome also fell to this process. The last great Grecian leader, Pericles, actually enacted a law in the year 451 BC limiting citizenship of the state according to racial descent. However, some four hundred years later this law was changed as the population shifts had become more and more evident. Certain Roman leaders tried to turn back the racial clock, but their efforts were in vain.

The sheer vastness of the Roman Empire meant that all sorts of races were included in its borders, and this brew ultimately led to the dissolution of the original Roman population.

Those who occupy a territory determine the nature of the society in that territory. This is an immutable law of nature. It is the iron rule upon which all of human endeavour is built—that history is a function of race.

The Rise and Fall of Civilizations Explained

• Each and every society and culture is the sum and unique product of the people making up that society;

• For example: The Chinese civilization is the product of the Chinese people, the Australian Aboriginal culture is the product of the Aboriginal people, and white society is the product of white people;

• This has nothing to do with subjective notions of superiority or inferiority;

• If the people in a society change their racial makeup, it is therefore logical that the culture of that society will change to reflect this shift in society;

• This is what is called the “rise and fall” of civilizations—where one culture gets replaced by a different culture;

• The cause of this replacement of cultures is the replacement of the people in that society;

• In this way, the American Indian culture “fell” because they were replaced by whites as the dominant race on the North American continent;

• Civilizations do not then “fall”—they are merely replaced by another culture, which is the product of the new population;

 A civilization “rises and falls” by its racial homogeneity and nothing else. As long as it maintains its racial homogeneity, it will last—if it loses its racial homogeneity, and changes its racial makeup, it will “fall” or be replaced by a new culture.

This is a chapter from March of the Titans, The Complete History of the White Race, available here.

The Final Call: What Can be Done?

The Final Call: What Can be Done?

In the Norse legend of the Ragnarök, a new world emerges after the world is immersed in fire and water, and in the new world, the gods and man live in peace ever after.

In the real world, things are not that simple. When the white civilizations of the ancient world were overrun, there were always new territories and new lands to be opened. When Mesopotamia fell, Egypt arose. When Egypt fell, classical Greece arose. When classical Greece fell, Rome arose. When Rome fell, the European states arose. Then the New World was opened, and North America, Australia, and New Zealand were added as white heartlands.

Now, however, these are all threatened by mass Third World immigration. There are no more new territories or lands to be opened. It is the final call for white Western civilization.

Can the West survive? The simple answer is yes, provided some basic steps are taken.

1. First and foremost, white people must have more children. All other political activity is meaningless without this fundamental building block. History, politics, and human affairs are the product of demography. A failure to breed is punished by Nature with extinction.

2. Political activity must be directed at awakening as many white European people as possible to the reality of race and its underpinning of world events.

3. This political activity must always be done in the idiom of the time. All attempts at political necrophilia (which seek to recreate certain past time periods, such as the Ku Klux Klan/Confederacy or National Socialist Germany) are doomed to failure. The era of “white supremacy” is gone, and all attempts to recreate it are foolish. The white race will live or die in the twenty-first century, and not in the centuries gone by.

4. This political activity must always be directed in reasonable, moderate, and socially acceptable language, terms, and presentation. There is, after all, nothing wrong with demanding the same rights which are accorded to all Third World nations (freedom from colonization and the right to self-determination) for First World nations. It is, in fact, entirely reasonable and normal.

5. This political activity must not be restricted to “only” publishing the odd book, website, or journal. It is a non sequitur to argue that there “are no politicians who support the interests of white people” when the people who make that complaint are not involved in practical politics. Of course there will be no pro-white politicians if all the politically-aware people who are pro-white, do not campaign and stand for office.

6. Political realism must be the watchword for all activists. Too many enter politics with false expectations of instant victory, and burn out when the expected glory does not materialize. Activists must be aware that the racial worldview goes against nearly a century of leftist indoctrination. The mass media is, for the greatest part, completely hostile and in the hands of those who applaud the racial destruction of the West. It is no easy ride, and victories on a pro-white political platform are, simply put, the hardest-to-achieve objectives which any activist will experience.

7. Fortunately, it is not necessary to win outright. All that is needed is for a significant minority of Western people to be awakened to the racial realities. The biggest threat to the future existence of the white race does not come from other racial groups, but rather from the sway which white liberals hold over society. All other races and groups do what they do because the ruling white liberal elite allows it.

And therein lies the rub; the nature of modern liberalism is suicidal. Liberals will, given enough time, destroy themselves. They will stop having children; they will miscegenate, and they will then cease to exist. As long as pro-white political activists have had sufficient children and engaged in sensible, reasonable political activity, their political views will be unopposed among the surviving white community.

Those who might argue that the racially-conscious surviving numbers will be too small to matter, should be aware that the founding European population in Upper Paleolithic times was no more than a few hundred thousand at most. There are already more people than that—millions, in fact—who have voted for pro-white or anti-immigration parties in Europe. There is no cause for pessimism about numbers.

8. Finally, the surviving white communities will have to be realistic about their geographic circumstances. It is no good to be a racially-conscious minority in a sea of hostile nonwhites, as the Afrikaners in South Africa discovered to their cost. As such, serious consideration will have to be given to white geographic consolidation once the time comes. In this regard, Eastern Europe and “white Russia” are likely to play a decisive role in providing a homeland in which white people from around the world will be able to reform, regroup, and survive—and hopefully learn from the lessons of history.

Is any of this possible? You, dear reader, and your actions, will help decide the answer to that question.

Did Aryan Giants Build the European Megaliths?

The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus insisted that giants must have once existed, because only they, with their awesome strength and superhuman capabilities, could have built the dolmens, menhirs, massive walls, and other structures that are strewn across Western Europe. The idea of a vast megalithic culture that once dominated much of Europe in the remote past is taken up by the author Paul Dunbavin in his book Atlantis of the West. For Dunbavin, the megalithic structures of Europe are not just simple creations built by a Stone Age culture, but the sophisticated handiwork of an advanced and ancient race, possibly the Atlanteans. (Indeed, Britain was once named Albion, after a Titan king of Atlantis.) Dunbavin believes that Atlantis lies beneath the Irish Sea and was submerged in 3100 BCE when a comet struck Earth, causing the Earth’s crust to shift and thus shrinking some of the existing landmasses, including those in and around ancient Europe (Dunbavin 2003).

Located on a rocky promontory near Sissian in Armenia is the profoundly ancient site of Zorats Karer, also known as Karahunj, which has been dubbed the Armenian Stonehenge. It dates to approximately 7600–4500 BCE, and as such, is probably the oldest stone circle in Europe. The rocks of this circle are quite large and extremely heavy. Extensive research carried out by Paris Herouni and Elma Parsamyan of the Biurakan Observatory has led them to conclude that the site was dedicated to the Armenian sun god Ari in that some of the stones mirror the brightest star of the Cygnus constellation—Deneb.
Tellingly, some old Armenian folktales tell of a distant epoch when the sun god Ari ordered a fallen race of giants to move the immense blocks of stone to the site and construct it. (Note the similarity between the name of the sun god Ari and “Aryan” and also the correlation with the Aryan sun god myths).

The question of whether Zorats Karer could be the oldest observatory of its kind in Europe, if not the world, was taken up by Oxford astrophysicist Mihran Vardanyan. He agrees that this site was no doubt an ancient observatory, but also suggests that it may well have been an ancient necropolis:
The most commonly accepted theory about the meaning of Karahunj is that it is an ancient burial ground, or necropolis—a place to act as a bridge between the earth and the heavens in the cyclical journey of the soul involving life, death and rebirth. The necropolis thesis is certainly true for after our initial investigations of the central circle, it is clear the site was aligned to the sun, most likely aligned to the moon and—what is really exciting, possibly even some stars or planets—owing to the placement of small holes drilled through the monoliths and aimed at the horizon. It is these holes which makes this exceptional megalithic site unique out of all similar European sites. (Vardanyan 2011)

In December 2010, the popular History channel documentary series Ancient Aliens featured Zorats Karer on episode 14, “Unexplained Structures.” The show linked Herouni and Parsamyan’s Deneb theory with the discovery of three hundred exoplanets by NASA’s Kepler planet-finding satellite within the Cygnus constellation (History 2010). This connection, without a doubt, is truly sensational and demands further investigation.

One of the most ancient and archaeologically significant megalithic sites in the world is Baalbek, where the bones of what may be ancient giants have been found. Baalbek lies approximately eighty-six kilometers northeast of the city of Beirut in eastern Lebanon. This most enigmatic of holy places is one of the Near East’s most important Roman and pre-Roman temple sites of study by historians and archaeologists. In 1898, a German expedition there claimed to have discovered no evidence of occupation prior to the Roman period, despite other claims suggesting a very ancient habitation of the site.

Recent archaeological finds have supported the latter idea, for in a deep trench at the edge of the Jupiter temple platform, Neolithic artifacts were discovered, along with the skeletons of three individuals of giant stature! Pottery dating to the Seleucid era (323–64 BCE) as well as Roman era remains (64 BCE–312 CE) were also discovered.

During both the Seleucid and Roman occupations, the town surrounding the immense religious monument was known as Heliopolis, the “City of the Sun,” and the sun god Jupiter was the focal point of the shrine. (The Roman god Jupiter had overtaken and supplanted the Greek god Zeus, and replaced the earlier god Baal, who incidentally shared some common characteristics with Zeus and, subsequently, Jupiter.)

Archaeologists now agree that Baalbek is more than nine thousand years old, with continual settlement dating from the Neolithic Age to the Roman Iron Age. Surrounding the site are massive walls built with twenty-four monoliths, weighing some three hundred tons each. The tallest wall, on the western flank of the temple site, contains what is known as the trilithon, a row of three stones, each 19 meters long, 4.3 meters high, and 3.6 meters broad, cut from solid limestone. Each stone weighs approximately eight hundred tons. Even with today’s technology, moving them into place would be a tremendous architectural accomplishment indeed.

According to David Hatcher Childress (2000): “Large numbers of pilgrims came from Mesopotamia as well as the Nile Valley to the Temple of Ba’al-Astarte. The site is mentioned in the Bible in the Book of Kings. There is a vast underground network of passages beneath the acropolis. Their function is unknown, but they were possibly used to shelter pilgrims, probably at a later period.”

How then was Baalbek constructed? Ancient Arab writings explain that the first stages of Baalbek, including the trilithon and other massive stone blocks, were built following the Great Flood at the mandate of King Nimrod, by a “tribe of giants” (Childress 2000). Again, we see the same giant motif, lending credence to the race of giants theory. How could so many disparate cultures in so many isolated locations all around the world arrive at the same supposition: giants were responsible for building the great megalithic monuments of prehistory? Another significant megalithic site needs little introduction. We are referring, of course, to the glorious Stonehenge, perhaps the most famous megalithic structure in the world.

One fascinating story concerning Stonehenge is a twelfth-century account written by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his work Historia Regum Britanniae, also known as The History of the Kings of Britain. Geoffrey maintained that the rocks of Stonehenge were healing rocks that had been imported from Africa and that they had immense curative properties. Collectively called the Giant’s dance, Stonehenge had, according to Geoffrey, originally been constructed on Mount Killaraus in Ireland.

The fifth-century Arthur-like figure Ambrosius Aurelius, at the behest of Merlin, designated Stonehenge to be instead a monument for the knights who perished fighting off Saxon incursions. Thus, the king dispatched Merlin, Uther Pendragon, and fifteen thousand knights to Ireland to capture the monument and bring it back to Britain. The knights slew seven thousand Irish warriors, but were unable to move the rocks with ropes and brute force. Then something very strange happened. Using the power of sound, Merlin dismantled the stones and transported them through a dimensional rift directly to Salisbury, where they were reassembled using levitation. Ambrosius Aurelius then died and was buried within Stonehenge, which is also known as the “Giants’ Ring of Stonehenge.”

Until recently there has been no accurate method for pinpointing when the stones were quarried and erected. However, a new dating method known as chlorine-23 has now been developed. Recent attempts at using this new method on Stonehenge have revealed that the monument, far from being only 4,500 years old as is maintained by current academia, in actual fact dates to 25,000 BCE.

Mainstream scientists have rejected these figures and, subsequently, do not consider this method of dating to be reliable. However, the method is deemed to be highly accurate. (Except when it contradicts what the establishment wants to believe as opposed to what the facts clearly point to!) In rebuttal, established academicians claim that the proponents of chlorine-23 themselves are merely seeing what they want to believe, in a total reversal of the truth!

http://www.renegadetribune.com/aryan-giants-build-european-megaliths/

European’s in America 22,000 years ago.

Dam Bursts: Washington Post reports “Soultrean Theory.”

Ten years ago scientists who talked about ancient Caucasians in North America were denounced as “racists” in the media. Now it is mainstream science backed by the top institutions. In the past two years the entire history of the first inhabitants of North America has been turned upside down.

From Washington Post…

When the crew of the Virginia scallop trawler Cinmar hauled a mastodon tusk onto the deck in 1970, another oddity dropped out of the net: a dark, tapered stone blade, nearly eight inches long and still sharp.

Forty years later, this rediscovered prehistoric slasher has reopened debate on a radical theory about who the first Americans were and when they got here.

When the crew of the Virginia scallop trawler Cinmar hauled a mastodon tusk onto the deck in 1970, another oddity dropped out of the net: a dark, tapered stone blade, nearly eight inches long and still sharp.

Forty years later, this rediscovered prehistoric slasher has reopened debate on a radical theory about who the first Americans were and when they got here.

Archaeologists have long held that North America remained unpopulated until about 15,000 years ago, when Siberian people walked or boated into Alaska and then moved down the West Coast.

But the mastodon relic found near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay turned out to be 22,000 years old, suggesting that the blade was just as ancient.

Whoever fashioned that blade was not supposed to be here.

Its makers probably paddled from Europe and arrived in America thousands of years ahead of the western migration, making them the first Americans, argues Smithsonian Institution anthropologist Dennis Stanford.

“I think it’s feasible,” said Tom Dillehay, a prominent archaeologist at Vanderbilt University. “The evidence is building up, and it certainly warrants discussion.”

At the height of the last ice age, Stanford says, mysterious Stone Age European people known as the Solutreans paddled along an ice cap jutting into the North Atlantic. They lived like Inuits, harvesting seals and seabirds.

The Solutreans eventually spread across North America, Stanford says, hauling their distinctive blades with them and giving birth to the later Clovis culture, which emerged some 13,000 years ago.

When Stanford proposed this “Solutrean hypothesis” in 1999, colleagues roundly rejected it. One prominent archaeologist suggested that Stanford was throwing his career away.

But now, 13 years later, Stanford and Bruce Bradley, an archaeologist at England’s University of Exeter, lay out a detailed case — bolstered by the curious blade and other stone tools recently found in the mid-Atlantic — in a new book, “Across Atlantic Ice.”