The Origin of Races, Part II
All world civilizations can probably be traced back to Cro-Magnon man.
“Everywhere one looks the Upper Paleolithic arrives in the form of an invasion …”
— David de Laubenfels
Thirty-five thousand years ago a new human race appeared somewhere in western Eurasia. Scientists do not know the precise point of origin or exactly how this new Homo sapiens sapiens became differentiated from his immediate predecessors, but differences there were, and in abundance. Though anatomically modern humans appeared more than 100,000 years ago, this new race possessed a remarkable constellation of new talents: creativity, ingenuity and a restless wanderlust that forever altered the course of life on earth.
Known as people of the Upper Paleolithic Period (the end of the Paleolithic — from approximately 60,000 to 10,000 B.C.), they were identified in 1868 by the discovery of fossils in a cave in southern France called Cro-Magnon. Soon exquisite cave paintings, clay figurines, ivory and calcite carvings, jewelry and musical instruments were found in other caves in France, Spain and Germany. Vivid images of mammoth, bison, horses and Cro-Magnon females indicated awareness not only of the physical world but also of sexual reproduction.
Formed in the crucible of a European ice age, Cro-Magnon had a cranial capacity of well over 1500 cubic centimeters. This is larger than modern Northern Europeans and East Asians, who have an average, including both males and females, of about 1350 cubic centimeters. Modern Africans have an average cranial capacity of about 1250 cubic centimeters. Since the correlation between brain size and intelligence is now well established, the intellectual capabilities of Cro-Magnon must have been impressive.
|The original Upper Paleolithic people would, if they appeared among us today, be called Caucasoid.|
Cro-Magnon people looked very similar to modern Europeans. David de Laubenfels, a Syracuse University anthropologist, said of them: “All have certain physical characteristics in common; all have well formed chins, high straight foreheads, smaller modern teeth, and brains as big as Neanderthal but without the heavy brow ridges… The original Upper Paleolithic people would, if they appeared among us today, be called Caucasoid …”
Technologically advanced Cro-Magnon people expanded outward from Northwest Europe during the Mesolithic era, 20,000 years ago or more, moving into West Asia and North Africa, as well as into Northeast Asia, where mixing with indigenous proto-Mongoloids appears to have been substantial. The mountains of Central Asia formed a barrier to their penetration into Southeast Asia. As a result, Southeast Asia today is largely a mix of early Mongoloids, Australoids and Negritos (possibly descended from earlier migrations of Africans).
The impact of the dispersal of these early Caucasians on the creation of civilization is incalculable. As the map on this page shows, every place on earth where history records the rise of great civilizations lies on a Cro-Magnon migration path. Prof. De Laubenfels adds: “There is reason to believe that the significant changes associated with the cultural advance known as the Upper Paleolithic had fully as great an impact on the human condition as any one of the familiar more recent great economic ‘revolutions’ [agricultural, industrial, etc.] … The Upper Paleolithic techniques … overwhelmed all regional bounds and spread inexorably in all directions ultimately to transform the economy in all parts of the inhabited world … The resulting population realignment produced for the most part the familiar modern racial groups and for the first time placed humans in the dominant ecological role in the world.”
What Prof. de Laubenfels attributes to “cultural advance” and “techniques” may be ascribed to intellect and temperament. Culture follows these traits and not the other way around. And, as numerous researchers have suggested — for example, Philippe Rushton of the University of Western Ontario and Edward Miller of the University of New Orleans — these traits have genetic origins. Even so timid a source as The History and Geography of Human Genes, by Professors Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi and Piazza, affirms that “the prototype of modern humans comes from Cro-Magnon.”
Civilization, throughout time and place, is therefore the virtually exclusive creation of the new race that was shaped in the forests and caves of Europe 35,000 years ago. This creation is not merely cultural. It is organic and genetic, and followed the restless migrations of Upper Paleolithic peoples into nearly every corner of the earth.
Ice People and Sun People
|Upper Paleolithic Cave Art.|
Prior to the arrival of Cro-Magnon, humans lived mainly in small, genetically homogeneous groups with restricted ranges. These isolated groups tended to diverge genetically. The result, according to de Laubenfels, was that “[b]y the end of the Middle Paleolithic period [250,000 to 60,000 B.C.] there had developed substantial divisions between peoples of different regions of the world and these resulting human types can be called early races.” [emphasis in original]
Modern races — Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, Australoid, etc. — were formed by isolation and adaptation to local conditions, the most powerful of which is climate. Intellectual adaptations that allowed early humans to survive long, cold ice-age winters were vastly different from those sufficient to sustain existence in a tropical climate, rich with year-round nourishment. These adaptations appear not only in external physical differences but in dramatically different IQ profiles, and in traits such as foresight, altruism, mating fidelity, anxiety, diligence, thriftiness, etc.
Philippe Rushton has used life history theory to explain such adaptations (see full treatment of this theory in AR, Dec. 1994). Citing Edward O. Wilson, the father of sociobiology, he explains:
“Evolutionary biologists assume that each species (or subspecies, such as a race) has evolved a characteristic life history adapted to the particular ecological problems encountered by its ancestors. A life history is a genetically organized suite of characteristics that evolved in a coordinated manner so as to allocate energy to survival, growth, and reproduction. These strategies may be organized on a scale.
“At one end are ‘r-strategies’ that emphasize gamete production, mating behavior, and high reproductive rates and, at the other, ‘K-strategies’ that emphasize high levels of parental care, resource acquisition, kin provisioning, and social complexity. The K-strategy requires more complex nervous systems and larger brains … [A]rchaic versions of what were to become the modern Caucasoid and Mongoloid peoples dispersed out of Africa about 100,000 years ago and adapted to the problem of survival in predictably cold environments. This evolutionary process required a bioenergetic tradeoff that increased brain size and parenting behavior (‘K’) at the expense of egg production and sexual behavior (‘r’).”
Edward Miller has proposed a concept called paternal investment theory. He suggests that “in cold climates males were selected for provisioning, rather than for mating success. In warm climates, where female gathering made male provisioning unessential, selection was for mating success. Male-hunted meat was essential [in cold climates] for female winter survival. Genes that encouraged mating success were selected for in warm climates. Negroes (blacks) evolved in warm climates, while Caucasians (whites) and Mongoloids (Asians) evolved in colder climates. Mating is assisted by a strong sex drive, aggression, dominance, sociability, extroversion, impulsiveness, sensation seeking, and high testosterone. Provisioning is assisted by anxiety, altruism, empathy, behavioral restraint, gratification delay, and a long life span.”
|Upper Paleolithic Art.|
The History and Geography of Human Genes devotes an early section, “Scientific Failure of the Concept of Human Races,” to denying what the average man knows instinctively, i.e. that races exist. The authors then spend a thousand pages proving what they have just denied. As Edward Miller says in his review of the book, “there do appear to be three major groups that include very large numbers of people, and whose gene frequencies differ. These are the three traditional groups of Negroids, Caucasoids and Mongoloids. American Indians and Australians constitute other large groupings with distinctive gene frequencies.”
The History and Geography of Human Genes presents a variety of techniques to illustrate genetic differences. They can be used to calculate a measure of “genetic distance,” which shows how much any two ethnic groups differ. Since the authors analyze only a few of the 100,000 human genes — and since the easily-measured genes from blood samples are not those that affect obvious traits that vary by race such as skin and eye color, hair texture, temperament, etc. — their genetic distances must be viewed as relative and approximate.
The above table provides data for a few ethnic groups, selected from the book’s analysis of 42 ethnic groups worldwide. On this scale, the English and the Danish differ by 21 points, the smallest difference among the 42 groups. The English differ from the Caucasoids of India by 280 points. The largest difference, 4573, occurs between Central African Mbuti Pygmies (not shown) and New Guinean aborigines. Approximate IQs have been added, based on work by Richard Lynn.
The Sorcerer’s Seed
The table shows the enduring imprint of Upper Paleolithic people. Cro-Magnon and his progeny seeded northern Eurasia with his genes, giving rise to civilization. Europeans, exemplified by the English, are genetically and intellectually closer to East Asians (typified by Koreans) than they are to black Africans and New Guinean aborigines, who have the lowest IQs.
Northeast Asians received a substantial infusion of Caucasoid genes during and after the Mesolithic period. During his expeditions to Mongolia in the 1920s, American scientist Roy Chapman Andrews found Cro-Magnon skeletons as far east as central Mongolia and dating from 20,000 years ago. More recently, four-thousand-year-old Caucasoid corpses have been found in the Tarim Basin area of Central China, confirming ancient Chinese legends about men having, in the words of researcher Victor H. Mair, “great height, deep set blue or green eyes, long noses, full beards, and red or blonde hair.”
American Indians are descended from Northeast Asians who, about 30,000 years ago, crossed a land bridge that spanned what is now the Bering Strait. They are genetically closest to present-day Northeast Asians but more distant than Asians from Europeans.
Why are American Indians not as intelligent as Northeast Asians? Upper Paleolithic people spread outward 20,000 years ago but Asians may have come to America 10,000 years earlier. It may be that Asians crossed the Bering Strait land bridge before Cro-Magnon’s descendants migrated into Northeast Asia — or before they arrived in large enough numbers to raise Asian intelligence. The Amerind IQ data suggest that climate-related evolution may have initially lifted Northeast Asian IQs moderately above those of Africans and Australoids but that it was the Cro-Magnon influx that lifted Asian IQ to the European level.
In an unpublished paper, Edward Miller writes: “When Australia and the Americas were settled the original populations lacked certain alleles because the relevant mutations had not yet occurred, or because these mutations had not reached the relevant parts of Eurasia. After Australia and the Americas came to be isolated from the larger Eurasian populations, they did not receive further immigrants … Thus, the intelligence of the Australian and American aboriginal populations came to lag behind that of the rest of the world.”
Evolution in Reverse
There is great intellectual resistance to the view that Cro-Magnon genes played a fundamental role in creating modern civilization, just as there is resistance to the view that human intellectual potential differs by race. Nevertheless, these concepts explain much of human life experience and we ignore them at our peril.
There is no guarantee that evolution will always move forward. In the white nations, low birthrates, non-white immigration, and miscegenation are weakening the gene pool. Current racial policies can lead only to genetic submersion.
Welfare has recreated an environment similar to that of Africa and has produced similar behavior. Recipients can subsist on government subsidies without having to plan for long, cold winters, much as early Africans could obtain food year-round in a tropical climate. Males can engage in promiscuous sexual activity and a substantial number of their offspring will reach maturity to repeat the cycle. Males are not needed for provisioning; females can rear children alone, sustained by government food and medicine. As a result, a violent new underclass has appeared, free from Nature’s culling forces.
Just as welfare drives evolution backwards, immigration is bringing to the West millions of people who cannot build or sustain our civilization. What will be lost if we do not act now to reverse this trend?
In The Decline of Intelligence in America, Seymour Itzkoff writes: “These words may sound crass. They are. But the situation is crassly serious. The United States, along with other European cultures around the world, is at risk. An epochal change is in process. For the past 35,000 years, the genetics of European intelligence, passed around the world, have laid the groundwork for what we call and treasure as civilization. Civilization in the West is now in jeopardy.”
Civilization is in jeopardy because our genetic heritage is in jeopardy. Humans with the endowments required to create civilization have arisen only once in the history of man. Cro-Magnon’s progeny will always create civilization; it is his destiny to do so. But without the genes that make it possible, there will be no rebirth if the West should fall.
Michael W. Masters is the author of “The Morality of Survival,” which appeared in the July and August 1995 issues of AR. His articles have appeared in The Social Contract, Southern Patriot and The Citizens Informer.